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Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus, 1758)
VELVET SURGEONFISH
Goldrim Surgeonfish; Velvet Surgeon; White-cheeked Surgeonfish; Whitecheek Surgeonfish; Yellow-banded Surgeonfish; Yellowrimmed Surgeonfish; Teuthis glaucopareius Cuvier, 1829; Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier, 1829; Chaetodon nigricans Linnaeus, 1758

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Acanthuridae   Acanthurus

Acanthurus nigricans
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Acanthurus nigricans

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Overview
Main identification features
  • black;white blotch under eye
  • dorsal and anal fins- black and yellow
  • tail fin white
Dorsal rays IX, 28-31; anal rays III, 26-29; pectoral rays 16; body depth 1.7-1.9 in standard length; gill rakers on first arch 17-19; tail fin slightly concave.

Overall black or black with a blue tint; with large white blotch below eye; narrow white band encircling mouth; a yellow band, becoming broader posteriorly, at base of dorsal and anal fins; tail fin white with narrow yellow bar posteriorly

Size: largest specimen, 22 cm.

Habitat: usually seen in shallow water of exposed coral reefs or rocky shores.

Depth: 0-70 m.

Eastern Indian Ocean and the tropical Pacific, mainly at islands; in the eastern Pacific it is known from the tip of Baja California, the SW and SE Gulf of California, southern Mexico, Costa Rica to Ecuador and all the offshore islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 70 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: benthic microalgae.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=25; Southern limit=-2; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=27; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Herbivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 22 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Balart , E. F. and Arvizu-Martínez, J., 1995., Contribución al conocimiento del origen y distribución de la ictiofauna del Golfo de California, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:57-78.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Elorduy Garay , J. F. and Jiménez Gutiérrez, S. V., 2000., Metodologías para el estudio de los peces de arrecife. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, estrategias de manejo para las especies marinas de ornato., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:72-82.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1883., List of the fishes now in the museum of Yale College, collected by Prof. Frank H. Bradley at panama, with descriptions of three new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 5(1882):620-632.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In Graham, J.B. (ed.) The Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia., Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 176:91-93.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1990., Ictiofauna Indopacifica asociada a los corales de la Isla de Gorgona., Revista de Ciencias, 2:97-105.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/33f1df40-3d1c-4699-80d9-930281d49032 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/33f1df40-3d1c-4699-80d9-930281d49032
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Acanthuridae  
 Genus Acanthurus  
  Acanthurus nigricans    (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Acanthurus aliala Acanthurus gahhm Acanthurus glaucoparecius Acanthurus glaucopareius Chaetodon nigricans Chaetodon nigrofuscus gahhm   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea(Randall et al.,1990)
Character: Dorsal-fin rays IX, 28-31 ; anal-fin rays III, 26-28 ; pectoral-fin rays 16.; Body black with a white spot broader than eye below and adjacent to eye; a narrow white band around mouth expect dorsally; a yellow band at base of dorsal and anal fins that broadens posteriorly to nearly full height of fins; caudal fin slightly emarginate color whitish with a yellow bar in posterior third. 
Habitat: Usually occurs on exposed outer reef aeras below heavy surge zone. Territorial, feeds on filamentous algae. 
Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: known only from Cocos-Keeling Islands and Christmas Island. Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands and Great Barrier Reef to the Hawaiian Islands and French Polynesia. Taiwan: South, Hsaioliuchiu, Lanyu, Lyudao, East. 
Utility: Subsistence fishery and commercial aquarium species. 
Name Code: 381269
  IUCN Red List:NL      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Acanthurus+nigricans&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Acanthurus+nigricans&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Acanthurus&speciesname=nigricans ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Acanthurus-nigricans.html

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Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Acanthurus nigricans   (Linnaeus, 1758)

Whitecheek surgeonfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins | Google image Image of Acanthurus nigricans (Whitecheek surgeonfish) Acanthurus nigricans
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 67 m (Ref. 1602 ), usually 2 - 67 m (Ref. 27115 ).   Tropical; 21°C - 29°C (Ref. 27115 ); 30°N - 24°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Indian Ocean: known only from Cocos-Keeling Islands and Christmas Island. Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands and Great Barrier Reef to the Hawaiian Islands and French Polynesia (excluding Rapa). This species has crossed the Eastern Pacific Barrier to the Revillagigedo Islands, Cocos Island, Galapagos Islands, and the coast of Mexico.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334 ); max. reported age: 34 years (Ref. 52229 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 28-31; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 26 - 28. A horizontally elongate white blotch directly below eye. No orange band in outer part of dorsal fin. Caudal peduncle black except for yellow edge of socket and sheath of peduncular spine. Base of pectoral fin black (ref 9808).Gill rakers on anterior row:17-19, on posterior row:18-20.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit hard substrate areas of clear lagoon and seaward reefs from the lower surge zone to at least 67 m and feeds on filamentous algae. Solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102 ). Monogamous (Ref. 52884 , 48637 ). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Small juveniles shy among large corals (Ref. 48637 ). Territorial species. Common throughout Micronesia and hybridizes with the rare A. achilles . Size of metamorphosis from the postlarva stage to juvenile is 5.5 to 6 cm (Ref. 9267 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Randall, John E. | Collaborators

Myers, R.F. , 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 94142 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01449 - 0.04560), b=2.93 (2.78 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.28; tmax=34). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

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