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Andrena simplex Smith, 1853
Andrena solidaginis Robertson, 1891; Andrena radmitricha Viereck and Cockerell 1914; Andrena (Ptilandrena) determinata Viereck 1917; Pterandrena solidaginis (Robertson, 1891)

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Andrenidae   Andrena
Subgenus: Callandrena_sensu_lato

Andrena simplex, female AMNH BEE00125974-3
© Copyright Hadel Go 2011-2016 · 8
Andrena simplex, female AMNH BEE00125974-3

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Andrena simplex, male AMNH BEE00125983-3
© Copyright Hadel Go 2011-2016 · 8
Andrena simplex, male AMNH BEE00125983-3
Andrena simplex, female AMNH BEE00125974-1
© Copyright Hadel Go 2011-2016 · 7
Andrena simplex, female AMNH BEE00125974-1

Andrena simplex, female AMNH BEE00125974-2
© Copyright Hadel Go 2011-2016 · 7
Andrena simplex, female AMNH BEE00125974-2
Andrena simplex, male AMNH BEE00125983-1
© Copyright Hadel Go 2011-2016 · 7
Andrena simplex, male AMNH BEE00125983-1

Andrena simplex, male AMNH BEE00125983-2
© Copyright Hadel Go 2011-2016 · 7
Andrena simplex, male AMNH BEE00125983-2
Andrena simplex FEM CFP comp
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Andrena simplex FEM CFP comp

Andrena simplex MALE CFP comp
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Andrena simplex MALE CFP comp
Andrena simplex, F, Side, VA, Westmoreland County ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Andrena simplex, F, Side, VA, Westmoreland County ---.. ZS PMax

Andrena simplex, figure25h
Mitchell, Bees of the Eastern United States, Vol. I, 1960 · 1
Andrena simplex, figure25h
Andrena simplex, figure27c
Mitchell, Bees of the Eastern United States, Vol. I, 1960 · 1
Andrena simplex, figure27c

Andrena simplex
Jelle Devalez · 1
Andrena simplex
Andrena simplex
Jelle Devalez · 1
Andrena simplex

Andrena simplex, female, face
© Rebekah Andrus Nelson · 1
Andrena simplex, female, face
Andrena simplex, female
J. Devalez · 1
Andrena simplex, female
Overview
Reprinted with permission of the University of Nebraska State Museum from:
LaBerge, W. E. 1967. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part I. Callandrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 7: 1-316.


Please report text errors to: leah at discoverlife dot org.

This is a small bee ranging from the plains states to the eastern seaboard. The males of A. simplex are distinctive in having a yellow clypeus, short antennae with the second and third flagellar segments subequal in length and together shorter than the first segment, the sixth sternal plate strongly reflexed apically, the metasomal terga dulled by coarse reticular shagreening and impunctate, and the vestiture pale in color. The females of A. simplex can be recognized by their small size, the second and third flagellar segments being subequal to one another, the facial foveae being short and broad, the terga being dulled by reticular shagreening and the middle basitarsus being distinctly broader than the hind basitarsus medially. Both sexes are distinctive in having the pterostigma at least as broad as from the inner margin of the prestigma to the wing margin and in occasional specimens slightly broader.

FEMALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — N = 20; length, 9.0-10.0 mm; width, 2.5-3.0 mm; wing length, M = 2.79 ± 0.139 mm; FL/FW, M = 0.99 ± 0.004; FOVL/FOVW, M = 2.47 ± 0.037.

INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. — Black except as follows: mandible rufescent at least in apical half; tegulae often slightly rufescent; wing membrane hyaline, slightly infumate, veins dark brown to black; terga extremely narrowly hyaline apically; sterna 2-5 hyaline apically, often rufescent medially; distitarsi often rufescent; tibial spurs yellow.

STRUCTURE. — Scape equal in length to flagellar segments 1-4 or slightly shorter; flagellar segment 1 longer than segments 2 plus 3, segment 2 subequal in length to segment 3 or extremely slightly shorter, segments 4ó9 longer than either 2 or 3. Eye about four times as long as broad, inner margins strongly converging towards mandibles. Malar space linear, at least six times as broad as long. Mandibles short, outer mandible in repose extends about one-fourth its own length beyond middle of labrum, bidentate; ventrobasal lamella present but poorly developed. Galea dulled by fine regular tessellation, lateral surface equal in width to about half dorsal surface, curved evenly from dorsum to side. Maxillary palpus short, not reaching tip of galea, segments in ratio of about 0.8:1.0:0.6:0.5:0.4:0.7. Labial palpus with first segment flat, strongly curved, broadest near apex, segments in ratio of about 1.5:0.7:0.6:0.8. Labral process short, about three limes as broad as long, strongly bidentate. Clypeus flattened slightly, protruding beyond eyes by about one-third of its own median length or less; punctures round, small, indistinct, irregular in size, coarser near apex; apical area gibbous; surface opaque, dulled by coarse reticular shagreening. Supraclypeal area with minute punctures and longitudinal shagreening moderately dulling surface. Genal area about equal in eye in width, with minute punctures crowded near eye margin, sparser posteriorly, surface moderately dulled by reticular shagreening especially posteriorly. Vertex short, above lateral ocelli equals slightly less than one ocellar diameter, with minute punctures separated mostly by one puncture width or more above ocelli, sparser laterally, surface dulled by coarse, dense tessellation. Face above antennal fossae with longitudinal rugulae extending to ocelli, interrugal spaces punctate, reticularly shagreened at least below, moderately shiny. Facial fovea relatively deep, short, not extending below middle of antennal fossa, upper end broad, separated from lateral ocellus by about three-fourths an ocellar diameter, lower end narrow.

Pronotum normal, with minute indistinct punctures and tine reticular shagreening dulling the surface. Mesoscutum with small to minute, irregularly spaced punctures separated mostly by two to three puncture widths, surface shiny to moderately shiny, with reticular shagreening dulling surface, shinier medially. Scutellum similar but punctures larger. Metanotum dulled by fine punctures and dense coarse tessellation. Propodeum with enclosure with sides slightly concave, surface regularly tessellate, slightly more coarsely sculptured at extreme base; dorsolateral and posterior areas with small round punctures separated by two to three puncture widths, dulled by coarse tessellation; corbicular surface moderately shiny, with small scattered punctures, surface coarsely and reticularly shagreened. Mesepisternum sculptured like mesoscutum but punctures slightly more abundant. Metepisternum with lowest part sculptured like corbicular area but punctures sparse or absent. Middle basitarsus expanded slightly medially, sides evenly rounded, slightly but distinctly broader than hind basitarsus medially. Tibial spurs and claws normal. Front wing with three submarginal cells; vein 1st m-cu meets second submarginal cell near middle or slightly beyond middle of cell; pterostigma usually about as broad as from inner margin of prestigma 10 wing margin, occasionally slightly broader.

Metasomal terga 1-5 appear almost impunctate, punctures minute, separated mostly by three to five puncture widths, surfaces opaque, dulled by coarse reticular shagreening of about same diameter as punctures; narrow apical hyaline areas finely shagreened; apical arras basal to hyaline areas more densely punctate beneath hair bands. Pygidial plate V-shaped with apex slightly blunted. Sterna 2-5 with crowded punctures near apical areas separated mostly by two puncture widths and sparser basad, surfaces dulled by coarse reticular shagreening.

VESTITURE. — Generally white except as follows: mesoscutum and scutellum medially with hairs sparse and cinereous; terga 5 and 6 often brown; hind tibia with dark brown hairs on basitibial plates and washed with brown along posterior margin; inner surfaces tarsi yellow to reddish-brown. Terga 2-4 with well-developed white apical fimbriae; tergum 1 with short lateral apical fimbriae. Sternal hairs forming weak apical suberect bands. Propodeal corbicula incomplete anteriorly, with abundant long simple internal hairs. Trochanteral flocculus complete. Tibial scopal hairs highly plumose throughout, of normal length.

MALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — N = 20; length, 8.0-10.0 mm; width, 2.0-2.5 mm; wing length, M = 2.63 ± 0.149 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.03 ± 0.007; FS1/FS2, M = 2.25 ± 0.054.

INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. — As in female except as follows: clypeus yellow except brown apical margin and dark spots mesad and below tentorial pits; tergal apical hyaline areas slightly broader.

STRUCTURE. — Antennae short, not extending back beyond tegulae in repose, scape slightly longer than flagellar segments 1-3; flagellar segment 1 distinctly longer than 2 plus 3, segment 2 equal in length to 3 or extremely slightly shorter, 3 distinctly shorter than 4. Eye about three and one-half times as broad or slightly longer, inner margins strongly converging towards mandibles. Malar space, mandibles, and galea as in female. Maxillary palpus as in female but segments in ratio of about 0.8:1.0:0.6:0.5:0.5:0.8. Labial palpus as in female but ratio of about 1.4:0.7:0.0:0.8. Labral process as in female. Clypeus and supraclypeal area as in female but clypeus slightly more shiny medially, shagreening finer. Genal area, vertex, and face above antennal fossae as in female.

Sculpturing of thorax as in female except as follows: propodeum with dorsal area slightly shorter. Wings, claws and tibial spurs as in female. Terga 1-5 as in female terga 1-4 but often moderately shiny, shagreening finer and reticulations coarser, punctures slightly more distinct. Tergum 7 with distinct median longitudinal glabrous area. Sterna 2-5 as in female but punctures coarser and surface slightly shinier. Sternum 6 with apical margin strongly reflexed.

Genitalia and sterna 7 and 8 as figured (Figs. 134-138). Note especially the following structures: gonoforceps with inner-dorsal ridge forming large, blunt, inwardly directed process; penis valve tips slightly knobbed, near base slightly expanded by lamellae; dorsal lobes gonocoxites short; sternum 7 with relatively shallow, V-shaped emargination; sternum 8 not expanded in neck region, tips broad, entire.

VESTITURE. — In general white; terga 1-5 with weak apical hair bands, especially strong on 2 and 3, on tergum 1 usually interrupted medially by half tergum width or more; sternal hairs forming apical bands of relatively short suberect white hairs; inner surfaces tarsi yellow.

TYPE MATERIAL. — The holotype female of A. simplex from the United States is in the British Museum (Natural History) in London (No. 17al36y). The lectotype (INHS) female (Robertson No. 8665) and the lectoallotype (INHS) male (Robertson No. 8655) of A. solidaginis from Carlinville, Illinois, September 1888, were collected by diaries Robertson. Six female and one male paratypes taken at Carlinville by Robertson are also at Urbana. The holotype (NSM) female of A. radmitricha Viereck and Cockerell was taken in October in Lincoln, Nebraska. The female holotype (PANS No. 4070) of A. determinata Viereck, was collected on August 18, 18(55, at North Andover, Connecticut.

DISTRIBUTION. — The known distribution of A. simplex includes the region from Kansas, Nebraska and Minnesota in the west to New Hampshire, Massachusetts and North Carolina in the east (Fig. 10). This species has been taken from August 17th through November 8th but chiefly during September. A total of 292 females and 111 males have been examined in addition to the type material listed above. The localities of these specimens are listed below together with all published records.

CONNECTICUT: North Andover; Stafford; Stamford. ILLINOIS: Carlinville; Matteson; Macomb; Normal; Urbana; Willow Springs. INDIANA: Lafayette. IOWA: Sioux City. KANSAS: Douglas County; Garnet; Independence (3 miles E.); Lawrence; Ottawa; Topeka. MARYLAND: Beltsville; Bethesda; Cabin John; Chesapeake Beach; Glen Echo; Great Falls; Lakeland; Laurel; Plummers Island; Yarrow. MASSACHUSETTS: Sherborn. MINNESOTA: Winona County. MISSOURI: Columbia; Hannibal; 0zark Lake. NEBRASKA: Broken Bow; Cedar Bluffs; Lincoln; Malcom; McCool; Omaha; Wabash; West Point; York County. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Meredith; Pelham. NEW JERSEY: Clifton; Englewood; Kearny; Moorestown; Palisades; Ramsey; Watching Reservoir, Union Co.; Westfield. NEW YORK: Bay Shore; Copake Falls; Lynbrook; New Rochelle; Nyack; Rochester; Tappan; Tompkins County; West Point. NORTH CAROLINA: Crabtree Creek State Park; Davie Co.; Grandfather Mountain; Lakeview; Linville; Raleigh; Umstead State Park; Washington County. OHIO: Hocking County; Mansfield; Shaker Heights; Stark County. PENNSYLVANIA: Braddock; Bryn Mawr (5 miles S.); Darby; Delaware County; Devon; Lake Winola; Lawnsdale; Manayunk; Mt. Airy; Mt. Holly Springs; Philadelphia; Westview; Wilawana. VIRGINIA: Alexandria; Falls Church; Four-mile Run; Hunting Creek; New Alexandria; Rosemont. WEST VIRGINIA: Smithburg. WISCONSIN: Burnett County (mouth of Yellow River); Maiden Rock; Pierce Co.; Fountain City, Buffalo Co. Canada. ONTARIO; Toronto.

FLORAL RECORDS. — Andrena simplex is an oligolege of the Compositae and seems to prefer flowers of the genera Solidago and Aster. This statement is supported by Robertson's work in southern Illinois (Robertson, 1925 and 1926). Table 4 gives the floral data available to the author. Plants from which this species has been collected are listed below (including previously published records).

Amphiachyris sp., A. dranunculoides, Aster sp., A. anomalus, A. azureus, A. commutatus, A. ericoides, A. ericoides vilosus, A. lateriflorus, A. multiflorus, A. novaeangliae, A. manipulates, A. praelatus, Boltonia asteroides, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Euthamia graminifolia, Gnaphalium polycephalum, Grindelia sp., Helianthus tuberosus, Polygonum hydropiperoides, P. scandens, Solidago sp., S. altissima, S. canadensis, S. graminifolia, S. lanceolata, S. nemoralis, S. rigida, S. serotina.



Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960. Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.

The brief description which follows was made from the type at the British Museum. No other specimens have been seen.

FEMALE — Length 9 mm.; process of labrum truncate, about twice as broad as long; clypeus dull, densely tessellate, punctures very minute, evenly distributed, slightly separated; facial foveae two-thirds as wide as distance between eyes and ocelli, pale tomentose; ocelli close to margin of vertex; cheeks shining, thinly pubescent, very slightly broader than eyes; scutum and scutellum moderately shining, punctures fine, scattered, rather sparse; propodeal triangle dull, very finely granular; pleura smooth but dull, almost tessellate; pubescence of head and thorax entirely whitish, rather short on dorsum of thorax; wings subhyaline, veins testaceous; stigma testaceous with a darker margin; hind tibiae slender, scopal hairs rather long, plumose; abdominal terga rather dull, finely tessellate, and with very minute and obscure but rather close punctures, apical margins narrowly hyaline, with thin, white fasciae, widely interrupted on segment 1, narrowly so on 2, entire on 3 and 4, discal pubescence hardly visible, segment 5 with a fulvous fimbria.

DISTRIBUTION — The type locality given in the original description is "United States," and whether it is eastern or western is not known.



Description based on the synonymous name: Andrena solidaginis

FEMALE — Length 9 mm.; clypeus slightly convex, projecting less than one-third below suborbital line, rather dull, finely tessellate, punctures fine and shallow, rather sparse medially, becoming quite close laterally,; facial foveae quite broad, filling most of space between eyes and ocelli above, with silvery tomentum which appears brownish at certain angles; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli slightly greater than their diameter; cheeks very slightly broader than eyes, rounded posteriorly, somewhat shining, minutely and obscurely punctate; malar space very short; basal segment of flagellum subequal to 2nd and 3rd combined; process of labrum subtriangular, apex narrowly but deeply emarginate; mandibles with a very low, subbasal, inferior dilation; pubescence of head and thorax pale, short, somewhat tinged with ochraceous above, more whitish below, whitish on the more basal leg segments, becoming fuscous on tarsi; thoracic integument rather dull, finely tessellate, punctures of scutum shallow, rather fine and close anteriorly, becoming minute and very sparse toward center posteriorly where the surface is shining, and scutellum shining, with very minute, irregularly scattered punctures; pleura with very shallow, fine, well separated punctures on a quite densely tessellate surface; dorsal area of propodeum narrow and oblique, triangle very finely and narrowly substriate along basal margin; propodeal corbicula whitish, rather short but well developed, with a quite distinct anterior fringe; trochanteral floccus rather well developed, elongate, white; hind tibiae quite slender and elongate, apex not much broader than basitarsi, scopa dense, of densely plumose hairs, entirely whitish; fore and mid basitarsi only slightly narrower than their respective tibiae; 2nd submarginal cell much shorter than 3rd, receiving 1st recurrent slightly beyond middle; abdominal terga smooth, somewhat shining, very finely and rather closely punctate, apical depressed areas very shallow, occupying medially about one-third length of discs, discal pubescence obscure, extremely short, fuscous, terga 2-4 with narrow but conspicuous, white, apical fasciae, tergum 5 with a fuscous, apical fimbria.

MALE — Length 7 mm.; face slightly longer than broad; clypeus only slightly convex, projecting but very slightly below suborbital line, yellow, except for a pair of small black spots and the blackish apical rim, smooth and shining, very finely punctate, punctures well separated but not sparse medially, becoming very close at extreme sides; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli slightly greater than diameter of ocelli; cheeks subequal to eyes in width, rounded posteriorly, somewhat shining, punctures very minute and obscure; malar space lacking; basal segment of flagellum subequal to 2nd and 3rd combined; process of labrum broadly subtriangular, apex deeply emarginate; mandibles short, with a distinct, inner, subapical tooth, overlapping but very slightly; pubescence of entire head, thorax and legs whitish; thoracic integument rather dull, finely tessellate, punctures of scutum fine, shallow and obscure, well separated anteriorly, becoming more sparse near center posteriorly where surface is somewhat shining, very obscure, shallow and sparse on scutellum, which is more tessellate; pleura anteriorly with some very shallow, obscure, well separated punctures, surface otherwise quite densely tessellate; dorsal area of propodeum rather narrow, oblique, triangle finely tessellate; basitarsi. slender and elongate, considerably narrower than their respective tibiae; 2nd submarginal cell somewhat shorter than 3rd, receiving 1st recurrent slightly beyond middle; abdominal terga rather smooth but dull, microscopically tessellate, punctures exceedingly minute and quite sparse, hardly visible, apical depressed areas narrow and quite shallow, becoming hyaline along rims, discal pubescence extremely short, thin and suberect, color uncertain, appearing dark, at least at certain angles, apical margins of terga with thin, whitish, apical fasciae evident toward sides, widely interrupted medially; apical portion of sternum 8 robust, sides parallel, apex rounded, slightly protuberant beneath, with rather short, dense pubescence; penis valves slightly expanded and bilobed apically, slightly dilated toward base, not excavated, gonocoxites abruptly dilated toward apex, the broad apical lobe somewhat recurved and carinate basally, narrowly rounded and submembraneous apically, gonocoxal lobes not produced.

DISTRIBUTION — Nebraska and Minnesota to the New England states, south to Georgia; July to September.

FLOWER RECORDS — Aster and Solidago. Recorded by Robertson (1929) on several species of each of these, as well as Boltonia, Gnaphalium and Polygonum.


Described under the synonymous name: Andrena solidaginis

FEMALE—Length 9 mm.; clypeus slightly convex, projecting less than one-third below suborbital line, rather dull, finely tessellate, punctures fine and shallow, rather sparse medially, becoming quite close laterallz; facial foveae quite broad, filling most of space between eyes and ocelli above, with silvery tomentum which appears brownish at certain angles; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli slightly greater than their diameter; cheeks very slightly broader than eyes, rounded posteriorly, somewhat shining, minutely and obscurely punctate; malar space very short; basal segment of flagellum sub- equal to 2nd and 3rd combined; process of labrum subtriangular, apex narrowly but deeply emarginate; mandibles with a very low, subbasal, inferior dilation; pubescence of head and thorax pale, short, somewhat tinged with ochraceous above, more whitish below, whitish on the more basal leg segments, becoming fuscous on tarsi; thoracic integument rather dull, finely tesselate, punctures of scutum shallow, rather fine and close anteriorly, becoming minute and very sparse toward center posteriorly where the surface is shining, and scutellum shining, with very minute, irregularly scattered punctures; pleura with very shallow, fine, well separated punctures on a quite densely tessellate surface; dorsal area of propodeum narrow and oblique, triangle very finely and narrowly substriate along basal margin; propodeal corbicula whitish, rather short but well developed, with a quite distinct anterior fringe; trochanteral floccus rather well developed, elongate, white; hind tibiae quite slender and elongate, apex not much broader than basitarsi, scopa dense, of densely plumose hairs, entirely whitish; fore and mid basitarsi only slightly narrower than their respective tibiae; 2nd submarginal cell much shorter than 3rd, receiving 1st recurrent slightly beyond middle; abdominal terga smooth, somewhat shining, very finely and rather closely punctate, apical depressed areas very shallow, occupying medially about one-third length of discs, discal pubescence obscure, extremely short, fuscous, terga 2-4 with narrow but conspicuous, white, apical fasciae, tergum 5 with a fuscous, apical fimbria.

MALE—Length 7 mm.; face slightly longer than broad; clypeus only slightly convex, projecting but very slightly below suborbital line, yellow, except for a pair of small black spots and the blackish apical rim, smooth and shining, very finely punctate, punctures well separated but not sparse medially, becoming very close at extreme sides; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli slightly greater than diameter of ocelli; cheeks subequal to eyes in width, rounded posteriorly, somewhat shining, punctures very minute and obscure; malar space lacking; basal segment of flagelluni subequal to 2nd and 3rd combined; process of labrum broadly subtriangular, apex deeply emarginate; mandibles short, with a distinct, inner, subapical tooth, overlapping but very slightly; pubescence of entire head, thorax and legs whitish; thoracie integument rather dull, finely tessellate, punctures of scutum fine, shallow and obscure, well separated anteriorly, becoming more sparse near center posteriorly where surface is somewhat shining, very obscure, shallow and sparse on scutellum, which is more tessellate; pleura anteriorly with some very shallow, obscure, well separated punctures, surface otherwise quite densely tessellate; dorsal area of propodeum rather narrow, oblique, triangle finely tessellate; basitarsi slender and elongate, considerably narrower than their respective tibiae; 2nd submarginal cell somewhat shorter than 3rd, receiving 1st recurrent slightly beyond middle; abdominal terga rather smooth but dull, microscopically tessellate, punctures exceedingly minute and quite sparse, hardly visible, apical depressed areas narrow and quite shallow, becoming hyaline along rims, discal pubescence extremely short, thin and suberect, color uncertain, appearing dark, at least at certain angles, apical margins of terga with thin, whitish, apical fasciae evident toward sides, widely interrupted medially; apical portion of sternum 8 robust, sides parallel, apex rounded, slightly protuberant beneath, with rather short, dense pubescence; penis valves slightly expanded and bibbed apically, slightly dilated toward base, not excavated, gonocoxites abruptly dilated townrd apex, the broad apical lobe somewhat recurved and carinate basally, narrowly rounded and submembraneous apically, gonocoxal lobes not produced. DISTRIBUTION—Nebraska and Minnesota to the New England states, south to Georgia; July to September.

DISTRIBUTION—Nebraska and Minnesota to the New England states, south to Georgia; July to September.

FLOWER RECORDS—Aster and Solidago. Recorded by Robertson (1929) on several species of each of these, as well as Roltonia, Gnaphalium and Polygonum.


Names
Scientific source:

References
Andrena simplex Smith, 1853, Catalog of Hymenoptera in the British Museum, vol. 1, p. 114; Provancher, 1882, Nat. Canada, vol. 13, p. 197; 1883, Faune Entomologique du Canada, p. 697; Morice and Cockerell, 1901, Canadian Entomologist, vol. 33, p. 124; Cockerell, 1906, Psyche, vol. 13, p. 8.

Andrena (Pterandrena) simplex: Mitchell, 1960, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin of the No. 141, p. 151.

Andrena solidaginis Robertson, 1891, Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 18, p. 55 (new synonymy); Graenicher, 1905, Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, vol. 15, p. 91; Viereck, 1907, Entomological News, vol. 18, p. 282; Pierce, 1909, Bulletin of the United States National Museum, vol. 66, p. 690; Graenicher, 1911, Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee, vol. 1, pp. 226, 237; Lovell, 1913, Entomological News, vol. 24, pp. 106, 110; Pierce, 1918, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 54, p. 442; Button, 1920, Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin, vol. 31, p. 344; Salt, 1927, Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 46, p. 246; Brimley, 1938, Insects of North Carolina, p. 453.

Pterandrena solidaginis: Robertson, 1902, Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 28, p. 194; 1910, Canadian Entomologist, vol. 42, pp. 325, 328; 1914, Entomological News, vol. 25, p. 69; 1925, Ecology, vol. 6, p. 426; 1926, Ecology, vol. 7, p. 379; Flowers and Insects, p. 10; Pearson, 1933, Ecology Monographs, vol. 3, p. 384.

Andrena (Pterandrena) solidaginis: Lanham, 1949, University of California Publications in Entomology, vol. 8, p. 200; Mitchell, 1960, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Technical Bulletin No. 141, pp. 151-154; Knerer and Atwood, 1964, Proceedings of the Entomological Society Ontario, vol. 94, p. 46.

Andrena radmitricha Viereck and Cockerell, 1914, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 48, p. 51 (new synonymy); Lanham, 1949, University of California Publications in Entomology, vol. 8, p. 200.

Andrena determinata Viereck, 1917, Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 43, p. 394; Mitchell, 1960, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141, p. 151 (synonymy).

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Asteraceae  Aster sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago sp @ CUIC_ENT (63)

Solidago @ UCMS_ENT (2); AMNH_BEE (1)

Symphyotrichum @ I_JDZ (1)

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Updated: 2017-10-17 21:39:22 gmt
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