- To +75cm tall, erect, herbaceous, single or few from base, glabrous and glaucous above, often pubescent to hirsute near base, branching above, from taproot. Branches erect, staying mostly parallel to main axis.
- Alternate, petiolate. Petioles winged, to +/-2cm long. Wing 1-2mm broad. Lowest leaves lyrate pinnatifid, to +/-15cm long, 5-6cm broad, glabrous, glaucous. Upper leaves oblong to obovate, entire or with a few coarse shallow teeth, glaucous below, dark green above, glabrous, to +/-6cm long, -2cm broad.
- Terminal racemes elongating in fruit to +60cm. Pedicels 2-4mm long in flower, to 1.3cm long in fruit, glabrous.
- Petals 4, yellow, clawed, glabrous. Claw to 3mm long. Limb 3-4mm long, +3mm broad. Stamens 6, erect. Filaments greenish-yellow, to -4mm long, glabrous. Anthers yellow, to 1.5mm long. Ovary green, terete, 3mm long, glabrous. Style 1.3mm long, persistent in fruit. Sepals 4, greenish-yellow, -4mm long, 1mm broad, linear, erect to spreading, glabrous, margins often revolute. Siliques to +4.5cm long, terete to 4-angled, with beak to +/-8mm long, glabrous ascending and usually parallel to stem axis. Seeds +20 per fruit, brownish-black.
- April - November.
- Fields, waste ground, roadsides, also cultivated.
- Native to Eurasia.
- For some reason I never got around to scanning in the leaves of this plant. Regardless, the plant can be identified in the field by the massive number of erect fruits it produces, its deep green leaves, and its small yellow flowers. The stems are long and thin. The plant often falls over when it reaches maturity because of the large number of fruits produced.
Like many of the members of this family and genus, the plant is introduced and care should be taken not to spread it in the wild.
plant is often grown for its small greens and for its seeds, which are used to make mustard.
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This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all
Federal and State Noxious Weeds
This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of
Weeds of the U.S.
(Linnaeus) W. D. J. Koch in J. C. Röhling, Deutschl. Fl. ed. 3. 4: 713. 1833.
Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 668. 1753
sparsely to densely hirsute-hispid (at least basally, proximally rarely subglabrate).
usually branched distally, (widely spreading), 3-20 dm.
petiole to 10 cm; blade lyrate-pinnatifid to sinuate-lobed, 6-30 cm × 10-100 mm, lobes 1-3 each side, (smaller than terminal, terminal lobe ovate, obtuse).
sessile or subsessile; blade (ovate-elliptic to lanceolate, similar to basal, reduced distally and less divided), base tapered, not auriculate or amplexicaul, (margins entire to sinuate-serrate).
not paniculately branched.
erect (straight), (2-)3-5(-6) mm.
sepals 4-6(-7) × 1-1.5 mm; petals yellow, ovate, 7-11(-13) × (2.5-)3-4.5(-5.5) mm, claw 3-6 mm, apex rounded; filaments 3.5-5 mm; anthers 1-1.5 mm.
erect-ascending (± appressed to rachis), smooth, ± 4-angled, 1-2.5(-2.7) cm × (1.5-) 2-3(-4) mm; valvular segment 2-5(-8)-seeded per locule, (0.4-)0.8-2(-2.5) cm, terminal segment seedless (linear, narrow), (1-)2-5(-6) mm.
brown to black, 1.2-1.5(-2) mm diam.; seed coat coarsely reticulate, minutely alveolate, not mucilaginous when wetted.
is widely cultivated as a condiment mustard. It is also a cosmopolitan weed especially common in the valleys of California (R. C. Rollins 1993). It occurs only sporadically in southern Canada but most frequently in Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River. Specimens from Alberta, Arkansas, Delaware, and South Carolina have not been observed.
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