Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152. |
FEMALE—Length 6-8 mm.; general body color blue-green, elypeus with an oblong, median, ivory maculation, antennae brownish-piceous apically beneath; legs greenish basally, the apical tarsal segments becoming brownish-testaceous, spurs pale yellowish, and front tibiae with a small, basal, ivory spot; tubercles with a small posterior ivory maculation; tegulae testaceous-hyaline; wings very lightly infuscated, veins testaceous to piceous; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes; mandibles distinctly tridentate apically; clypeus quite flat, its median length about two-thirds the apical width; segments 2-5 of flagellum distinctly broader than long; maculated area of clypeus smooth and impunctate, lateral greenish areas shallowly and coarsely punctate, face otherwise quite coarsely and rather closely punctate, with a limited impunctate area below each antenna, and punctures between ocelli and antennae rather sparse, cheeks rather finely and closely punctate above, becoming very sparsely punctate laterally and below; thorax more finely punctate than head, the scuscutum quite sparsely so between notaulices, with numerous punctures medially and toward the notaulices, becoming quite closely punctate anteriorly and posteriorly; scutellum with well separated, deep and somewhat finer punctures medially, becoming more finely and densely punctate along the margin; pleura quite coarsely and deeply punctate, the punctures close above, becoming rather sparse below; lateral faces of propodeum very finely and densely punctate, the posterior face becoming somewhat more shining and more sparsely but rather vaguely punctate, dorsal area rugoso-striate along margin, lower margin narrowly impunctate and quite smooth; punctures of abdominal terga quite deep and distinct but rather fine, quite close in general, but well separated medially and on discs of 2-4, interspaces much exceeding diameter of punctures; pubescence very short, thin, hardly evident except on thorax laterally, on legs, and to some degree on the more apical abdominal segments.
MALE—Length 6-7 mm.; general body color blue-green, clypeus ivory in large part, narrowly greenish laterally, the labrum with a small, submedian, ivory maculation; antennae more brownish beneath, piceous above; legs largely metallic greenish, the apical tarsal segments becoming brownish-testaceous, basal half of front tibiae with an ivory stripe on outer face; mid and hind spurs pale testaceous; tubercles ivory; tegulae yellowish-hyaline; wings very lightly infuscated apically, veins testaceous to piceous; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes; clypeus quite fiat, its median length about two-thirds the apical width; mandibles obscurely bidentate apically, having a small, subapical tooth on lower margin; segments 2-4 of flagellum somewhat broader than long; hind femora somewhat dilated toward base but not angulate, the length more than twice the maximum width; carina of tergum 7 quite evenly rounded, the median length only slightly less than basal width; clypeus somewhat roughened but not distinctly punctate except at extreme sides; face shining, punctures coarse, deep and quite close below, rather sparse just below antennae and in a limited shining area below ocelli, otherwise quite close on face and vertex above, becoming shallow and quite sparse on cheeks laterally and below; punctures of thorax considerably finer than those on head, the scutum rather sparsely punctate medially, becoming quite closely punctate anteriorly and posteriorly; scutellum with somewhat finer and quite close punctures throughout; punctures of pleura rather coarse and subcontiguous; propodeum very finely and densely punctate laterally, posterior face rather coarsely, vaguely and shallowly punctate, the dorsal area rather coarsely reticulate, its lower margin narrowly impunctate; punctures of abdominal terga quite deep and distinct, rather fine, close in general but interspaces on terga 2 and 3 considerably greater than diameter of the punctures; pubescence entirely pale, very short, thin and inconspicuous, more evident on thorax laterally and on legs; apical margin of sternum 6 with a deep median cleft bearing a more lateral pair of peg-like processes and a shorter, finer median pair; sternum 7 and genital armature much as in calcarata (fig. 124).
DISTRIBUTION—Michigan to Maine, south to Mississippi and Florida, throughout the year in Florida, elsewhere March to August.
FLOWER RECORDS—Daucis, Erigeron, Fragaria, Galactia, Geranium, Helenium, Malus, Medicctgo, Melilotus, Oenothera, Oxalis, Pycnanthemum, Ru bus, Salix, Salvict, Senecio, Spiraea, and Stachys. The following additional records are given by Robertson (1929): Amelanehier, Ammannia, Amorpha, Anemonella, Anten. naria, Arabis, Arctium, Aruncus, Asciepias, Aster, Bidens, Blephilia, Bra uneria, Cacalia, Carnassia, Cardamine, Ceanothus, Cephalanthus, Cerastium, Chrysanthemum, Circaea, Cirsium, Claytonia, Collinsia, Convolvulus, Coreopsis, Cornns, Crataegus, Crypt otaenia, Cypripedium, Delphinium, Dentaria, Dianth era, Diospyros, Dirca, Elusia, Erigenia, Bryn glum, Erythonium, Eupatorium, Gerardia, Gillenia, Hedeoma, Helianthus, Heliopsis, Heracleum, Houstonia, Hydrangea, Hydrophyllum, Hypoxis, Isopyrum, Krigia, Lactuca, Leonurus, Lepidium, Liatris, Lithospermum, Lobelia, Lyco pus, Lythrum, Malva, Marrubium, Monarda, Nelumbo, Nepeta, Pastinaca, Pentstemon, Petalostemum, Phyrma, Polemonium, Polygonatum, Polygonium, Poten tilla, Prunus, Prunelia, Psoralea, Ptelea, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhus, Rosa, Budbeckia, Sabatia, Sagittaria, Sambucus, Scrophularia, Scutellaria, Sida, Silphium, Smilax, Solidago, Specularia, Stellaria, Teucrium, Tradescantia, Trifolium, Triosteum, Verb ena, Verb esina, Vernonia, Veronica, Vibvrnum, Viola and Zizia.
Reprinted with permission from: Daly, Howell. 1973. Bees of the Genus Ceratina in America North of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) University of California Publications in Entomology Volume 74:1-113
Ceratina dupla Say, 1837
Male.—Measurements and ratios: wing, 4.5 mm; hamuli, 5; eye, 110:115:105:90; clypeus, 55 x 90:35:70; interocellar, 20:35:20:40, diameter 18; frontal carina, 50; malar area, 0 x 40; interalveolar, 20:20:30:40, diameter 20; antenna, 40:11:11:10:10:11, diameter 17.5; subpleural signum, 15x2.5 (Tippecanoe County, Indiana; Purdue University)
Mitchell (1962) has recently redescribed both sexes of Ceratina dupla. Males are distinctive among the eastern species as medium-sized, bluish to blue-green bees with an entire apical plate and only slightly developed metafemoral tooth (width less than half the femoral length). The smaller C. diodonta has a similarly shaped metafemur, but with the apical plate emarginate. Other eastern bees of medium size have a well-developed metafemoral tooth. The females cannot be separated with confidence from those of C. calcarata (see discussion of that species) and for this reason the map (fig. 19) is based only on males. Many of the literature references cited above have undoubtedly confused the two species.
In Florida Ceratina dupla is not only allopatric to C. calcarata, but also possibly has been isolated from the more northern populations of C. dupla until recently. Mitchell (1962) recognized the distinctive bright blue, more densely punctate bees as a new subspecies, C. dupla floridana. The intervening populations are heterogeneous as far north as North Carolina and resemble, at least superficially, a zone of hybridization such as has been described for other organisms by Remington (1968) as the Northern Florida suture zone. Therefore the transitional populations do not appear to represent a stable dine between gee- graphic variants, but rather a spreading unstable zone of hybridization between formerly isolated populations.
The original description of C. dupla was unfortunately based on a female and the type is presumed lost. On the tenuous basis that females with clypeal marks are more likely to be C. dupla, a welcome stability in nomenclature has been inherited without a neotype designation. Halictus ontariensis is based on a male of C. dupla, but no type was designated. Dr. René Beique, Université Laval, Quebec, kindly provided access to the Provancher collection. A specimen point- mounted under the body and with the following labels was designated as a lectotype: top label yellow and bearing the number “860,” a double red-margined label “Ceratina dupla Say,” a red label “Lectotype 545, Halictus ontariensis Provancher, Comeau 1944,” and my red lectotype label. M. Comeau apparently never published his designation, making the present indication necessary in order to validate the specimen. The lectotype is deposited in Université Laval, and the wing length is 4.5 mm.
Flowers visited by males: Aesculus glabra sargentii, Amelanchier sp., A. canadensis, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Anthemis cotula, Aruncus sp., Aster paniculatus, Barbarea vulgaris, Benzoin aestivale, Brassica sp., Capsella sp., C. bursa-pastoris, Cephalanathus occidentalis, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Chrysopsis sp., Claytonia caroliniana, Crataegus sp., C. punctata, Daucus carota, Dentaria diphylla, D. laciniata, Erigeron sp., E. annuus, E. canadensis, E. philadelphicus, Fragaria sp., F. virginiana, Galactia sp., Geranium maculatum, Helianthus sp., Houstonia sp., Hydrangea paniculata. Melilotus alba, M. officinalis, Oxalis sp., Phacelia covillei, Potentilla recta, Prunus sp., P. americana, P. serotina, Pulsatilla sp., Pycnanthemum sp., Ranunculus sp., Rubus sp., Salix sp., S. discolor, S. sericea, Salvia pratensis, Senecio plattensis, Solidago sp., Spiraea sp., Stokesia laevis, Taraxacum sp., T. dens-leonis, T. officinale, Trifolium sp., Tussilago farfara, Vaccinium, sp., V. corymbosum, Viola rafinesquii, Waldsteinia sp., Zizia aurea.