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Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
RED HIND
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Epinephelus guttatus   (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos     Sounds | Stamps, Coins | Google image Image of Epinephelus guttatus (Red hind) Epinephelus guttatus
Picture by Bryan, D.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707 ).   Tropical; 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756 ). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 25.0   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222 ); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 ); max. published weight: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217 ); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 31471 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-16; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938 ); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs ( Calapa and Mithrax ) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710 ). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938 ). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ,  IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group

CITES (Ref. 94142 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172 )




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
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Tools

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Special reports

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00983 - 0.01280), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000). Prior r = 0.48, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.92, log(r) = -0.73, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 1 M, 4 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 6 Fec records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Binohlan, Crispina B. Fish Forum
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