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Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758
ATLANTIC COD
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Gadidae   Gadus


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gadus&speciesname=morhua ---> http://www.fishbase.se/summary/Gadus-morhua.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Gadus morhua   Linnaeus , 1758

Atlantic cod Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Gadus morhua   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Sounds | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Gadus morhua (Atlantic cod) Gadus morhua
Picture by Morris, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Gadidae (Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Gadus: Latin, gadus = a fish, cod? (Ref. 45335 ) .   More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 600 m (Ref. 1371 ), usually 150 - 200 m (Ref. 54441 ).   Temperate; 0°C - 15°C; 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 86°E (Ref. 1371 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North Atlantic and Arctic: Ungava Bay in Canada along the North American coast to Cape Hatteras; North Carolina in the western Atlantic. East and west coast of Greenland; around Iceland; from Barents Sea including the region around Bear Island along the European coast to Bay of Biscay (Ref. 88171 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 63.4 , range 31 - 74 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371 ); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371 ); max. published weight: 96.0 kg (Ref. 9988 ); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 173 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 44-55; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 33 - 45; Vertebrae : 51 - 55. Protruding upper jaw, a conspicuous barbel on the lower jaw, and light lateral line, curved above the pectoral fins. Predorsal distance is less than one third of total length; body depth about 1/5 of total length. Color varies from brownish to greenish or gray dorsally and on upper sides, becoming pale and silvery ventrally. Peritoneum silvery.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Widely distributed in a variety of habitats, from the shoreline down to the continental shelf. Juveniles prefer shallow (less than 10-30 m depth) sublittoral waters with complex habitats, such as seagrass beds, areas with gravel, rocks, or boulder, which provide protection from predators (Refs. 89383, 89384). Adults are usually found in deeper, colder waters. During the day, form schools and swim about 30-80 m above the bottom, dispersing at night to feed (Ref. 1371 , 89385 ). Omnivorous; feed at dawn or dusk on invertebrates and fish, including young cod. (Ref. 1371 ). Migrate between spawning, feeding and overwintering areas, mostly within the boundaries of the respective stocks. Migrations >200 km are rare occurrences (Refs. 89386, 89387). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawning occurs in winter and beginning of spring, where big schools are formed. Spawning sites are in offshore waters, at or near the bottom, in 50-200 m depth and 0-12 °C (preferred range 0-6°C) (Refs. 1371 , 89387 ). May form spawning aggregations in the water column when bottom temperatures are unsuitable (Ref. 1371 ). Different spawning areas may be used in subsequent years (Ref. 89387 ). Embryo development lasts about 14 days (at 6°C) and larval phase lasts about 3 months(at 8°C). Fecundity ranges from 2.5 million eggs in a 5 kg female to a record of 9 million eggs in a 34 kg female. Reported number of batches spawned in an experiment is 8 - 22 (Ref. 5513 ). Sex ratio is nearly 50%, with slight predominance of females. Classified as a determinate multiple spawner (Ref. 40290 ). Older and larger cod had been found to produce larger eggs with neutral buoyancy at lower salinities. This can be crucial to egg and larval survival (Refs. 31930, 38384). Larvae are pelagic up to 2.5 months before settling on the bottom (Ref. 1371 ). In the Baltic, spawning cumulates in March at depths below 20 m near the bottom. The nursery areas are in the inner coastal zone. Recruitment to the fished stock starts below 2 years and peaks at about 3 years of age (Ref. 5947 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba , 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A1bd)

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Aquaculture: production , species profile ; fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
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Ecology
Diet
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Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | OsteoBase( skull , spine ) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | RFE Identification | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 0.5 - 10.3, mean 6.6 (based on 769 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00629 - 0.00796), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.1   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (rm=0.2-1.1; also (Ref. 36717 )). Prior r = 0.47, 2 SD range = 0.23 - 0.96, log(r) = -0.76, SD log(r) = 0.36, Based on: 15 M, 56 K, 98 tgen, 2 tmax, 37 Fec records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Torres, Armi G. Fish Forum
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