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Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton, 1822)
BOMBAY-DUCK
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Synodontidae   Harpadon


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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Aulopiformes  
 Family Synodontidae  
 Genus Harpadon  
  Harpadon nehereus    (Hamilton, 1822) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Harpadon nebereus Harpodon nehereus Osmerus nehereus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 福建魚類誌(朱等, 1985); 中國動物誌-燈籠魚目(陳等, 2002); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Character: Body compressed. Eye small. Adipose eyelid on anterior and posterior margins. Mouth large, gape tending obliquely. Upper jaw not protractile, bordered its entire length by premaxilla, its length more than 1/2 head length and extending well past posterior margin of orbit. Teeth on palatines, vomer and tongue. Body naked except for a series of scales along lateral line and on to tail. Dorsal fin about midway on back, with 11-12 rays; anal fin posterior to end of dorsal fin, with 13-15 rays; pectoral fins reaching beyond origin of dorsal fin ; pelvic fins with 9 rays, inner rays subequal or slightly longer than outer rays; caudal fin forked. 
Habitat: Inhabit deep water offshore on sandy mud bottom for most of the year, but also gathers in large shoals in deltas of rivers to feed during monsoons. Spawn 6 batches of broods per year. An aggressive predator. 
Distribution: Widespread in the Indo-West Pacific from India to the Solomon Islands. It found in western and southern Taiwanese waters. 
Utility: Marketed fresh, salted dried, or smoked. 
Name Code: 380839
  IUCN Red List:NL      
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Harpadon&speciesname=nehereus ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Harpadon-nehereus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Harpadon nehereus   (Hamilton, 1822)

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Harpadon nehereus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Harpadon nehereus (Bombay-duck) Harpadon nehereus
Picture by Gloerfelt-Tarp, T.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes (Grinners) > Synodontidae (Lizardfishes) > Harpadontinae
Etymology: Harpadon: Greek, arpedon, -es = net, bow, knot (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 50 - ? m (Ref. 9987 ).   Tropical; 31°N - 12°S, 40°E - 153°E (Ref. 54462 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Somalia to Papua New Guinea, north to Japan and south to Indonesia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3417 ); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11-13; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 13 - 15. Scales restricted to posterior half of the body. Posterior tip of pectoral fin reaching origin of pelvic fin.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit deep water offshore on sandy mud bottom for most of the year, but also gathers in large shoals in deltas of rivers to feed during monsoons (Ref. 9987 , 11230 ). Spawn 6 batches of broods per year (Ref. 43449 ). An aggressive predator (Ref. 9987 ). Primarily caught along Maharashtra with the bag-net, better known as 'dol' net. Operation of this gear is timed to a strong tidal current. The bag with the mouth set against the current strains the fish which is being retained therein by the strength of the current. The net is thus retrieved before the tide turns. Very phosphorescent. Excellent food fish. Marketed fresh and dried or salted; consumed pan-fried (Ref. 9987 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P. , 1984. Harpadontidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 2. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3417 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 94142 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00202 - 0.00544), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.73 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.18-0.7). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Low .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Santos, Kristine Fish Forum
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