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Helianthus
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Asteraceae

Helianthus giganteus, Tall Sunflower
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 9
Helianthus giganteus, Tall Sunflower

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Helianthus angustifolius, Narrowleaf Sunflower
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Helianthus angustifolius, Narrowleaf Sunflower
Helianthus divaricatus, Woodland Sunflower
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Helianthus divaricatus, Woodland Sunflower

Helianthus divaricatus - Woodland Sunflower
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Helianthus divaricatus - Woodland Sunflower
Helianthus giganteus, Tall Sunflower
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Helianthus giganteus, Tall Sunflower

Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke
Helianthus tuberosus
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 6
Helianthus tuberosus

Helianthus tuberosus
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 5
Helianthus tuberosus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus angustifolius
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus angustifolius
Helianthus angustifolius
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus angustifolius
Kinds

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Andrena accepta @ RUAC_ENT (2); I_JSA (2); AMNH_BEE (36)

Andrena helianthi @ AMNH_BEE (5)

Calliopsis coloratipes @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Perdita aridella @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Perdita bequaerti @ AMNH_BEE (6)

Protoxaea gloriosa @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Pseudopanurgus aethiops @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Pseudopanurgus albitarsis @ AMNH_BEE (10)

Pseudopanurgus leucopterus @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Pseudopanurgus porterae @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Aphelinidae  Encarsia luteola @ UCRC_ENTA (7)

Encarsia meritoria @ UCRC_ENTA (44)

Encarsia @ UCRC_ENTA (2)

Eretmocerus emiratus @ UCRC_ENTA (1)

Eretmocerus hayati? @ UCRC_ENTA (2)

Eretmocerus mundus @ UCRC_ENTA (2)

Eretmocerus mundus? @ UCRC_ENTA (2)

Eretmocerus mundus? @ UCRC_ENTA (2)

Eretmocerus sp_pakistan? @ UCRC_ENTA (1)

Eretmocerus sp_pakistan? @ UCRC_ENTA (1)

Eretmocerus sp_uae @ UCRC_ENTA (2)

Eretmocerus sp_uae? @ UCRC_ENTA (1)

Eretmocerus @ UCRC_ENTA (16)
Aphididae  Aphis ( @ AMNH_PBI (4); CSUC_TCN (39)

Brachycaudus ( @ CSUC_TCN (1)

Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (6)

Uroleucon ( @ NCSU (6); AMNH_PBI (3)
Apidae  Anthophora curta @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Anthophora urbana @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus citrinus @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Bombus fervidus @ CUIC_ENT (1); AMNH_BEE (3)

Bombus griseocollis @ CUIC_ENT (2); BMEC_ENT (2); AMNH_BEE (5)

Bombus huntii @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Bombus morrisoni @ BMEC_ENT (1); AMNH_BEE (17)

Bombus pensylvanicus @ BMEC_ENT (2); AMNH_BEE (2)

Bombus perplexus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus rufocinctus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus sonorus @ BMEC_ENT (1)

Bombus terricola @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Centris caesalpiniae @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Diadasia diminuta @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Diadasia enavata @ AMNH_BEE (28)

Diadasia rinconis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Ericrocis lata @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Exomalopsis solidaginis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Melissodes agilis @ AMNH_BEE (8); CUIC_ENT (95)

Melissodes coreopsis @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Melissodes denticulata @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Melissodes desponsa @ CUIC_ENT (4)

Melissodes druriella @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Melissodes illata @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Melissodes robustior @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Melissodes trinodis @ I_JSA (2); AMNH_BEE (14)

Melissodes tristis @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Nomada adducta @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Nomada edwardsii @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Nomada gutierreziae @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Nomada texana @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Nomada vincta @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Svastra machaerantherae @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Svastra obliqua @ AMNH_BEE (16)

Svastra sabinensis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Tetraloniella eriocarpi @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Xeromelecta californica @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Xylocopa varipuncta @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Braconidae  Lysiphlebus ( @ AMNH_PBI (11)
Cicadellidae  Oncometopia ( @ NCSU_ENT (21)
Coccidae  Parthenolecanium corni @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Coccinellidae  Coccinella septempunctata @ I_LB (1)
Colletidae  Colletes birkmanni @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Colletes intermixtus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Colletes phaceliae @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Colletes rufocinctus @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Delphacidae  Stobaera tricarinata @ UDCC_TCN (1)
Diaspididae  Hemiberlesia lataniae @ MEMU_ENT (3)
Geocoridae  Geocoris punctipes @ AMNH_IZC (2)
Halictidae  Agapostemon angelicus @ AMNH_BEE (8)

Agapostemon melliventris @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Agapostemon tyleri @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Agapostemon virescens @ CUIC_ENT (1); AMNH_BEE (1)

Augochlora pura @ CUIC_ENT (7)

Augochloropsis sumptuosa @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Halictus ligatus @ AMNH_BEE (17)

Lasioglossum cinctipes @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Lasioglossum comulum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Lasioglossum foxii @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum hitchensi @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum pictum @ AMNH_BEE (5)

Lasioglossum quebecense @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum zonulum @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Lygaeidae  Xyonysius californicus @ AMNH_IZC (2)
Megachilidae  Coelioxys octodentata @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Coelioxys rufitarsis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Dianthidium curvatum @ AMNH_BEE (7)

Megachile campanulae @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Megachile centuncularis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Megachile fortis @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Megachile inimica @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Megachile mendica @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Megachile montivaga @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Megachile parallela @ AMNH_BEE (24)

Megachile perihirta @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Megachile petulans @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Megachile policaris @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Megachile pugnata @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Megachile relativa @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Megachile snowi @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Paranthidium jugatorium @ AMNH_BEE (1); CUIC_ENT (35)

Stelis louisae @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Trachusa zebrata @ AMNH_BEE (8)
Melittidae  Hesperapis carinata @ AMNH_BEE (62)
Membracidae  Publilia modesta @ AMNH_ENT (1); CSUC_TCN (3)

Spissistilus festinus @ UDCC_TCN (2)

Vanduzea segmentata @ UDCC_NRI (5); UDCC_TCN (12)
Miridae  Lygus elisus @ AMNH_IZC (43)

Lygus hesperus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Poecilocapsus lineatus @ AMNH_ENT (5)

Reuteroscopus unknown @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Slaterocoris hirtus @ NCSU_ENT (6)
Pentatomidae  Euschistus servus @ UCR_ENT (1)

Murgantia histrionica @ CSUC_TCN (1)
Reduviidae  Apiomerus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phymata americana @ UCR_ENT (6)

Phymata granulosa @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Phymata noualhieri @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Thyreocoridae  Galgupha nitiduloides @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Tingidae  Corythucha morrilli @ AMNH_IZC (2)
_  Protaphis middletoni @ NCSU_ENT (3)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (19)

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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 21 | Asteraceae

299. Helianthus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 904. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 386. 1754.

Sunflower, tournesol [Greek helios , sun, and anthos , flower, alluding to heads]

Edward E. Schilling

Annuals or perennials, (5—)20—300(—500) cm. Stems erect or ascending to decumbent or pro-cumbent, usually branched distally. Leaves basal and/or cauline; opposite, or opposite (proximal) and alternate, or alternate; petiolate or sessile; blades usually 3-nerved (1-nerved in H. eggertii, H. smithii , and H. maximiliani ), mostly deltate, lance-linear, lanceolate, lance-ovate, linear, or ovate, bases cordate to narrowly cuneate, margins usually entire or serrate, rarely lobed, faces glabrous or hairy, often gland-dotted. Heads usually radiate (sometimes discoid in H. radula ), borne singly or in ± corymbiform, paniculiform, or spiciform arrays. Involucres usually ± hemispheric, sometimes campanulate or cylindric, 5—40+(—200+ in cultivars) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 11—40(—100+ in cultivars) in 2—3+ series (subequal to unequal). Receptacles flat to slightly convex (conic in H. porteri ), paleate (paleae ± conduplicate, usually rectangular-oblong, usually ± 3-toothed, sometimes entire, apices sometimes reddish or purplish). Ray florets usually 5—30+(—100+ in cultivars), rarely 0, neuter; corollas usually yellow. Disc florets (15—)30—150+(—1000+ in cultivars), bisexual, fertile; corollas yellow or reddish (at least distally), tubes shorter than campanulate throats, lobes 5, triangular (style branches slender, appendages ± attenuate). Cypselae (usually purplish black, sometimes mottled) ± obpyramidal, ± compressed (glabrous, glabrate, or ± hairy); pappi 0 ( H. porteri ), or readily falling, of 2(—3) usually lanceolate, aristate, or erose scales (at the 2 principal angles, 1—5 mm) plus 0—8 usually shorter scales (0.2—2 mm). x = 17.

Species 52, including 1 hybrid (52 in the flora): North America, Mexico; introduced in the Old World.

The identification of sunflower species has long been problematic. C. B. Heiser et al. (1969) felt that the greatest contribution of their sustained efforts to understand sunflower taxonomy was not providing an easy way to identify sunflowers but rather an explanation for why they are so difficult. Taxonomic difficulties are based on a combination of factors, notably developmental and ecologic plasticity, the frequency of interspecific hybridization, and the presence of polyploidy. L. H. Rieseberg (1991) and Rieseberg et al. (1988, 1990) have subsequently documented the presence of species of homoploid hybrid origin to add to the complexity. The keys in this treatment have been modified somewhat with observations of features that require microscopic observation, such as the distribution of glands (sometimes referred to as "resin dots") and the color of anther appendages; they still are based heavily on those of Heiser et al. There will still be specimens, of hybrid origin or growing in unusual conditions or incompletely collected, that defy certain placement into a single species. The taxonomic rank of certain taxa is also problematic, and for the most part the treatment of Heiser et al. has been followed, with relatively few exceptions. With the exception of Helianthus × laetiflorus , which is widespread and commonly encountered away from either parental species, hybrids are not treated as separate entities. Helianthus verticillatus has been verified as a distinct entity, unlikely to be simply a hybrid. Whether H. praetermissus E. Watson, which continues to be known only from a single fragmentary specimen, represents a distinct species or an anomalous collection is still uncertain; it has not been included here.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Heiser, C. B. 1976. The Sunflower. Norman. Heiser, C. B., D. M. Smith, S. Clevenger, and W. C. Martin. 1969. The North American sunflowers ( Helianthus ). Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 22(3). Rogers, C. E., T. E. Thompson, and G. J. Seiler. 1982. Sunflower Species of the United States. Fargo. Storbeck, T. A. 1984. A Taxonomic Study of Helianthus Series Microcephali and Allied Species. Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Helianthus+sp.&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Helianthus+sp.&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Updated: 2017-12-15 16:39:11 gmt
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