The type matches specimens that are not the ones described by Mitchell as L. versatum, rather they are more like L. rohweri with moderately wide front trochanters. See the guide characters for more details.
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.
FEMALE—Length 5.5-6.5 mm.; head and thorax green, abdomen piceous; pubescence short, thin, entirely pale; length and breadth of head subequal; clypeus convex, projecting about one-half below suborbital line, apical half blackened; supraclypeal area considerably broader than long, much shorter than clypeus; eyes slightly convergent below; lateral ocelli slightly nearer eyes than to each other; mandibles rather abruptly declivous at basal third, as viewed from in front, dorsally carinate from this point to the base; cheeks subequal to eyes in width; face below ocelli rather dull, closely, deeply and rather finely punctate, punctures becoming somewhat more definitely separated on vertex; cheeks above shining, very obscurely punctate, becoming quite smooth below; hypostomal carinae subparallel, apical angle quite abrupt; lower half of face smooth, but sometimes tessellate between the slightly separated and rather shallow punctures, those on supraclypeal area fine, evenly distributed and rather close, those along upper margin of clypeus minute, becoming coarse, deep and well separated apically; scutum and scutellum somewhat shining, punctures rather fine and close (much as in weemsi, fig. 99); pleura dull, densely tessellate, sometimes with scattered and obscure punctures; dorsal area of propodeum rather coarsely striate, striations not quite reaching the hind margin, lateral surfaces shining and rather smooth; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma testaceous; tegulae brownish-testaceous, outer apical rim more yellowish-hyaline; legs piceous basally, becoming somewhat reddened at tips, front trochanters broadly dilated and flattened (fig. 100), breadth exceeding half the length; abdominal terga shining, very minutely and obscurely punctate, basal tergum nearly impunctate, terga 2 and 3 rather closely punctate to apical margin, shallowly and rather broadly impressed apically, rims becoming very narrowly yellowish.
MALE—Length 5.5-6.0 mm.; head and thorax metallic green, abdomen more piceous, but with strong greenish or bluish reflections; pubescence short, thin, entirely whitish, rather dense on face and cheeks, somewhat more copious on thorax laterally; length and breadth of head subequal; clypeus rather narrow, convex, projecting about one-half below suborbital line; supraclypeal area subequal in length to clypeus; eyes strongly convergent below; lateral ocelli slightly nearer eyes than to each other; antennae much nearer eyes than to each other, basal segment of flagellum about as broad as long, 2nd and following segments nearly twice this length, obscurely reddish- brown beneath, piceous above; mandibles and labrum testaceous; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes; face below ocelli closely, deeply and rather finely punctate, punctures becoming slightly more separated on vertex; cheeks somewhat shining, very closely but obscurely punctate above, becoming vaguely substriate and somewhat shining below; hypostomal carinae subparallel; face below antennae densely tomentose, punctures beneath the tomentum fine and quite close in general, minute and rather close even on clypeus; scutum and scutellum somewhat shining, punctures rather fine, deep and distinct, well separated on scutum medially, becoming quite close between notaulices and tegulae, punctures of scutellum fine, well separated in center; pleura dull, finely subrugose above, becoming more tessellate or striate below, with some scattered, indefinite punctures visible at certain angles; dorsal area of propodeum rather coarsely and completely striate, striae becoming somewhat irregular medially, lateral faces somewhat shining, finely roughened or subreticulate; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma brownish-testaceous; tegulae yellowish-hyaline; legs piceous basally, tarsi quite definitely yellow, front trochanters somewhat flattened and dilated, similar to those in female; abdominal terga somewhat shining, punctures very fine, rather evenly distributed, quite close in general, largely absent from the apical impressed areas, and the apical rims becoming yellowish-hyaline, terga 3 and 4 largely exposed, without dense tomentum; apical margin of sternum 5 nearly straight; median process of sternum 7 much like that in nigroviridis (fig. 101), but tip narrower, subacute; gonostylus of armature as shown (fig. 102), retrorse lobe elongate, attenuated apically, very finely pubescent.
DISTRIBUTION—Minnesota to Maryland, south to Louisiana and Georgia; March to October.
FLOWER RECORDS—Anthemis, Asclepias, Aster, Brassica, Ceanothus, Cicuta, Claytonia, Crataegus, Cucurbita, Daucus, Erigeron, Eryngium, Fragaria, Helenium, Jussiaea, Koellia, Leucanthemum, Ligustrum, Oenothera, Plantago, Pontederia, Prunus, Ptilimnium, Pyrrhopappus, Ranunculus, Rhus, Rorippa, Senecio, Solidago, Trifolium, Viburnum and Vicia.
Retrieved from: Gibbs, J. 2010. Revision of the metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus)in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini). Zootaxa; 2591, 342-346
Chloralictus versatus Robertson, 1902: 249. ♀ ♂.
Lectotype. ♀ [USA, Illinois, Carlinville] (C. Robertson); [INHS: 179,563] by W. LaBerge. Examined.
Halictus subconnexus rohweri Ellis, 1915: 292. ♀. [new synonymy]
Holotype. ♀ USA, Virginia, Newington, Fairfax Co., 30.v. [depository unknown]
Halictus (Chloralictus) apertus Sandhouse, 1924: 35 ♂. [new synonymy]
Holotype. ♂ USA, Virginia, Chain Bridge, 14.vi., (S.A. Rohwer); [NMNH: 26437]. Examined.
Halictus (Chloralictus) genuinus Sandhouse, 1924: 36. ♂. [new synonymy]
Holotype. ♂ USA, Virginia, Chain Bridge, 14.vi., (S.A. Rohwer); [NMNH: 26438]. Examined.
Taxonomy. Viereck, 1916: Halictus (Chloralictus) versatus, p. 707 (key); Michener, 1951: Lasioglossum
(Chloralictus) apertum, p. 1112, L. (C.) genuinum, p. 1113, L. (C.) rohweri, p. 1117, L. (C.) versatum, p. 1118
(catalogue); Mitchell, 1960: Dialictus apertus ♂, p. 380, D. genuinus ♂, p. 394, D. laevissimum ♂ (misdet.), p.
401, L. rohweri ♀, p. 418 (redescription); Krombein, 1967: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) rohweri, p. 466, L. (D.)
versatum, p. 466, (catalogue); Dialictus apertus, p. 1964, D. genuinus, p. 1966, D. rohweri, p. 1971, D. versatus,
p. 1972 (catalogue); Moure & Hurd, 1987: Dialictus apertus, p. 89, D. genuinus, p. 101, D. rohweri, p.
127, D. versatus, p. 137 (catalogue); Pesenko et al., 2000: Evylaeus rohweri, p. 52, E. versatus, p. 54 (review).
Diagnosis. Females of L. versatum can be recognised by the diagnostic combination of a large size (5.1–
6.8 mm), wide head (length/width ratio = 0.89–0.94), mandible dorsal margin straight, clypeus 1/3–1/2 below
suborbital line, tessellate mesoscutum with moderately sparse punctures on the distinctly flattened central disc
(i=1.5–3d), rugulose mesepisternum, reddish brown tegula, unmodified protrochanter, metapostnotum completely
rugoso-striate, T1 acarinarial fan with wide dorsal opening and brown metasomal terga with dense
punctures on apical impressed areas. They are most similar to L. callidum which have the protrochanter very
wide (Fig. 82E), strongly curved dorsal margin of the mandible at midlength (Fig. 82D), and clypeus not
much protruding below suborbital line (Fig. 82C).
Males of L. versatum are similar to females but have more elongate heads (length/width ratio = 1.00–1.01)
and can be further distinguished by the moderately dense tomentum on the lower face, moderately elongate
flagellomeres (length/width ratio = 1.43–1.60) with ventral surface brownish yellow, hind basitarsus four
times as long as broad, and apical impressed areas of the metasomal terga punctate (Fig. 233D). Similar species
include L. dubitatum, L. callidum, L. laevissimum and L. mitchelli.
Male L. dubitatum have short and
wide hind basitarsus approximately three times as long as broad (Fig. 100E). Male L. callidum have wide fore
trochanters. Male L. laevissimum and L. mitchelli have the apical impressed areas of the metasomal terga
Redescription. FEMALE. Length 5.06–6.78 mm; head length 1.34–1.75 mm; head width 1.48–1.97 mm;
forewing length 3.78–4.88 mm.
Colouration. Head and mesosoma green with golden reflections to bluish green. Clypeus with apical half
blackish brown and basal half, and supraclypeal area golden-green to brassy. Antenna dark brown, flagellum
with ventral surface dark brown to dull brownish yellow. Tegula dark brown to reddish brown. Wing membrane
faintly dusky, venation and pterostigma brownish amber. Legs brown. Metasoma dark brown, terga and
sterna with apical margins translucent brownish yellow.
Pubescence. Dull white. Moderately dense. Head and mesosoma with moderately dense woolly hairs (1–
1.5 OD), longest on genal beard, metanotum and mesopleuron (2–2.5 OD). Lower paraocular area and gena
with sparse subappressed tomentum. Propodeum with moderately dense plumose hairs on lateral and posterior
surfaces (2–2.5 OD). Metasomal terga with moderately sparse, fine setae. T1 acarinarial fan sparse with wide
dorsal opening, intermingled with erect hairs. T2–T3 basolaterally and T4 entirely with tomentum obscuring
surface. T2 apicolateral and T3–T4 lateral margins with sparse fringes.
Surface sculpture. Face imbricate. Clypeus polished, basal margin weakly imbricate, punctation moderately
sparse (i=1–2d). Supraclypeal area with punctation moderately sparse (i=1–2d). Lower paraocular area
punctation dense (i≤d). Antennocular area punctation moderately dense (i=1–1.5d). Upper paraocular area
and frons punctate-reticulate. Ocellocular area densely punctate (i≤d). Gena lineolate. Postgena imbricate.
Mesoscutum tessellate, punctation moderately sparse on medial portion of disc (i=1.5–3d), dense adjacent to
parapsidal lines (laterad and mesad) (i≤d) and reticulate on anterolateral portions. Mesoscutellum similar to
mesoscutum, submedial impunctate portion small. Axilla punctate. Metanotum imbricate. Preëpisternum rugulose.
Hypoepimeral area imbricate. Mesepisternum dorsal portion weakly rugulose and ventral portion
imbricate. Metepisternum with dorsal half rugoso-striate, ventral half imbricate. Metapostnotum completely
rugoso-striate. Propodeum with dorsolateral slope and lateral and posterior surfaces ruguloso-imbricate.
Metasomal terga weakly coriarious except T1 polished, punctation fine and moderately dense throughout
Structure. Head very wide (length/width ratio = 0.89–0.94). Eyes convergent below (UOD/LOD ratio =
1.27–1.29). Clypeus 1/3–1/2 below suborbital tangent, apicolateral margins convergent. Antennal sockets
close (IAD/OAD < 0.5). Frontal line carinate, ending <2 OD below median ocellus. Gena narrower than eye.
Mesoscutum between parapsidal lines flattened. Inner metatibial spur pectinate with 4–6 teeth. Metapostnotum
moderately elongate (MMR ratio = 1.19–1.33), posterior margin weakly angled onto posterior surface.
Propodeum with oblique carina weak, virtually absent, lateral carina divergent, almost meeting dorsal margin.
MALE. Similar to female except for the usual secondary sexual characters and as follows. Length 5.06–
6.47 mm; head length 1.44–1.94 mm; head width 1.42–1.94 mm; forewing length 3.72–5.06 mm.
Colouration. Flagellum with ventral surface brownish yellow. Tegula dark brown. Tarsi pale brownish
Pubescence. Paraocular area, clypeus, and supraclypeal area with tomentum partially obscuring face. T2–
T4 with sparse basolateral tomentum. S3–S5 apicolateral portions with weak subappressed hairs (1–1.5 OD).
Surface sculpture. Mesepisternum more strongly rugulose. Metapostnotum longitudinally to anastomosingly
rugoso-striate. Propodeum with dorsolateral slope and posterior surface rugose. Metasomal terga polished
except apical impressed zones weakly coriarious, punctation distinct on apical impressed areas.
Structure. Head round (length/width ratio = 1.00–1.01). Eyes strongly convergent below (UOD/LOD ratio
= 1.46–1.52). Clypeus 2/3 below suborbital tangent, apicolateral margins weakly convergent. Antennal sockets
distant (IAD/OAD > 1.3). Frontal line carinate, ending 1 OD below median ocellus. Pedicel shorter than
F1. F2 length 1.9X F1. F2–F10 moderately elongate (length/width ratio = 1.43–1.60). Metapostnotum moderately
elongate (MMR ratio = 1.25–1.33), posterior margin sharply angled onto posterior surface.
Terminalia. S7 with median lobe columnar, apex rounded (Fig. 232E). S8 with apicomedial margin
weakly convex (Fig. 232E). Genitalia as in Fig. 232E–F. Gonobase with ventral rim narrowly separated.
Gonostylus small, dorsal setae elongate. Retrorse lobe elongate, weakly attenuated, recurved apically.
Range. Quebec, south to North Carolina, west to Manitoba, Kansas (Fig. 230).
Additional material examined. CANADA: MANITOBA: 1♀ Reynolds, 9.vi.1953 (Brooks & Kelton);
[CNC]; ONTARIO: 1♀ 3 km NE of Almonte, N45.2507 W076.1377, 6.v.2008 (P.M. Catling); 2♂♂ 3 km NE
of Almonte, N45.2507 W076.1377, 21.viii.2008 (P.M. Catling); 5♀♀ Gibbs Road, N45.434 W074.508, 28.vi–
2.vii.2006 (J. Gibbs); QUEBEC: 2♂♂ W of Hudson, Finnegan’s Market, N45.47338 W074.18637, 7.x.2006
(Gibbs & Nozoe); USA: ARKANSAS: 1♀ Polk Co., Baird Springs, 20 mi SE Mena, vii–11.x.1995 (C. Robison);
[CNC]; ILLINOIS: 2♀♀ Carlinville, N39.1365 W089.9419, 24.vi.2006 (J. Gibbs); 1♀ Carlinville,
N39.2463 W089.9185, 24.vi.2006 (C. Sheffield); 3♀♀ Carlinville, N39.2463 W089.9185, 24.vi.2006 (J.
Gibbs); 17♀♀ Carlinville, N39.3018 W089.7886, 26.vi.2006 (J. Gibbs); 1♀ E of Carlinville, N39.2673
W089.623 25.vi.2006 (J. Gibbs); 1♀ Kankakee Co., Hooper Br., 26.iv.2003 (R.P. Jean); INDIANA: 1♀ Jasper
Co., Nipsco, 30.vi.2002 (R.P. Jean); 1♀ Vigo Co., MTJ, 14.iv.2000 (J.K. Farrell); KANSAS: 1♀ Douglas Co., Akins Prairie, N38°54.361´ W095°09.351´, 1–2.viii.2004 (J. Hopwood); 1♀ Douglas Co., Rockefeller Prairie,
N39°02.68´ W095°12.24´, 27.vii.2004 (J. Hopwood); MARYLAND: 3♀♀ Frederic Co., Creagerstown Park,
Hwy 550 & Monocacy Riv., N39.6153 W077.3506, 10.vi.2006 (J. Gibbs); 2♀♀ Pr. George’s Co., N39.0351
W76.8738, 17.vi.2005 (S.W. Droege); 2♂♂ Pr. George’s Co., N39.0494 W76.8091, 6.vii.2002 (H.W. Ikerd);
1♀ MASSACHUSETTS: 1♀ Berkshire Co., Greylock Glen, 1.3 mi NW Adams, 19.vii.2006 (M.F. Veit);
MISSOURI: 1♀ Dent Co., Indian Trail CA, 24.vi.2001 (Arduser); [PCYU]; NEW YORK: 3♀♀ Schuyler Co.,
Reisinger, Watkins Gln, 13.v.2009 (M.G. Park); [CUIC]; 1♀ Tompkins Co., Slaterville, 20.vii.2007 (R.G. Goelet);
[AMNH]; NORTH CAROLINA: 1♀12♂♂ Great Smoky Mountain N.P., Cataloochee, N35.62489 W083.11391, 6.viii.2006 (J. Gibbs); 5♂♂ Great Smoky Mountain N.P., Cataloochee overlook, N35.63997
W083.06017, 6.viii.2006 (J. Gibbs); [GSNP]; 5♀♀ S of Bryson City, Bryson City & Queen Branch Rds.,
N35.28377 W083.4872, 8.viii.2006 (J. Gibbs); [PCYU]; TENNESSEE: 1♂ Great Smoky Mountain N.P., Cataloochee,
N35.62489 W083.1139, 6.viii.2006 (J. Gibbs); [GSNP]; VIRGINIA: 1♀ Assateague I., N37.9124
W075.359, 1– 2.vii.2006 (S.W. Droege); [PCYU]; WISCONSIN: 1♀ Dane Co., Hauser Rd (R.A. Anderson);
3♀♀2♂♂ Dane Co., Westport Drumlin, 11.vii.1996 (R.A. Henderson); [IRCW].
Floral records. Many additional records have been recorded for L. versatum (Moure & Hurd 1987) but
because of the identity of the holotype (see below) these are not included here. ANACARDIACEAE: Rhus,
APOCYNACEAE: Apocynum, ASTERACEAE: Chrysanthemum, Erigeron, Galinsoga quadriradiata, Hieracium,
Oligoneuron album, Rudbeckia, Senecio, Solidago, Taraxacum, BRASSICACEAE: Barbarea, Brassica,
Raphanus, , CAPRIFOLIACEAE: Viburnum, FABACEAE: Melilotus, IRIDACEAE: Sisyrinchium,
PLANTAGINACEAE: Plantago, POLYGONACEAE: Fagopyrum, RANUNCULACEAE: Ranunculus,
ROSACEAE: Amelanchier, Crataegus, Fragaria, Malus, Potentilla, Rubus, SALICACEAE: Salix, VITACEAE:
Biology (as rohweri). Michener & Wille, 1961: (possible parasite); Knerer & Atwood, 1962: (nest site,
nest architecture, floral records); Knerer & Atwood, 1966b: (nest architecture); Knerer, 1968: (nest guarding);
Barrows, 1974: (predator); Michener, 1974, pp. 50, 83, 283, 287: (aggregations, worker production, caste differences,
natural history); Breed, 1975: (life cycle, behaviour); Barrows, 1976: (microterritorial & patrolling
behaviour); Delfinado & Baker, 1976: (mite association); Danforth 1999: (phylogeny); Danforth & Ji 2001:
(phylogeny); Danforth et al. 2003: (phylogeny).
Three new synonymies for L. versatum are proposed. The lectotype belongs to the species commonly
referred to as L. rohweri. The holotypes of both H. apertus and H. genuinus were collected at the same time
and the same locality and are indistinguishable. Both of these are clearly males of L. versatum (= H. subconnexus
rohweri). The lectoallotype of Chloralictus versatus belongs to the species L. simplex.
The species described as D. versatus by Mitchell (1960) is clearly different from the lectotype of H. versatus
(see comments above for L. callidum). Specimens identified as L. versatum examined from the SEMC,
including ones collected from nests for behavioural studies (see Michener 1966), did not match L. callidum or
the lectotype for L. versatum. The SEMC material matches an undescribed species, without greatly expanded
trochanters, found in the central and eastern USA. DNA barcodes of this new species, to be described in a
revision of the Eastern USA Dialictus (J. Gibbs, in prep.), are clearly different from those of L. versatum and
L. callidum. This undescribed species is evidently the host of L. simplex.
Extracted from Jason Gibbs. 2011. Revision of the metallic Lasioglossum (Dialictus) of eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Halictini.) Zootaxa.
Lasioglossum (Dialictus) versatum (Robertson)
Chloralictus versatus Robertson, 1902b: 249. ♀ ♂.
Lectotype. ♀ USA, Illinois, Macoupin Co., Carlinville, 8.iv.1886 (C. Robertson); [INHS: 543] by W. E. LaBerge (in Webb 1980). Examined.
Halictus subconnexus rohweri Ellis, 1915: 292. ♀.
Lectotype. ♀ USA, Virginia, Fairfax Co., Newington, 30.v.1911 (S.A. Rohwer) [UCMC] designated herein. Examined.
Halictus (Chloralictus) apertus Sandhouse, 1924: 35. ♂.
Holotype. ♂ USA, Virginia, Chain Bridge, 14.vi., (S.A. Rohwer); [NMNH: 26437]. Examined.
Halictus (Chloralictus) genuinus Sandhouse, 1924: 36. ♂.
Holotype. ♂ USA, Virginia, Chain Bridge, 14.vi., (S.A. Rohwer); [NMNH: 26438]. Examined.
Halictus (Chloralictus) geminus Bohart, 1941: 138. Lapsus calami.
Taxonomy. Viereck, 1916: Halictus (Chloralictus) versatus, p. 707 (key); Michener, 1951: Lasioglossum (Chloralictus)
apertum, p. 1112, L. (C.) genuinum, p. 1113, L. (C.) rohweri, p. 1117, L. (C.) versatum, p. 1118 (catalogue); Mitchell,
1960: Dialictus apertus ♂, p. 380, D. genuinus ♂, p. 394, D. laevissimum ♂ (misdet.), p. 401, L. rohweri ♀, p. 418 (redescription);
Knerer and Atwood, 1962a: D. rohweri ♂, p. 1230 (description); Krombein, 1967: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) rohweri, p. 466, L. (D.) versatum, p. 466, (catalogue); Dialictus apertus, p. 1964, D. genuinus, p. 1966, D. rohweri, p.1971, D. versatus, p. 1972 (catalogue); Moure & Hurd, 1987: Dialictus apertus, p. 89, D. genuinus, p. 101, D. rohweri, p.127, D. versatus, p. 137 (catalogue); Pesenko et al., 2000: Evylaeus rohweri, p. 52, E. versatus, p. 54 (review); Gibbs, 2010b: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) versatum ♀♂, p. 342 (redescription, key, synonymy).
Diagnosis. Female L. versatum can be recognised by the following diagnostic combination: size large (5.1–6.8 mm);head wide (length/width ratio = 0.89–0.94); mandible with dorsal margin straight; clypeus 1/3–1/2 below suborbital line; mesoscutum tessellate, punctures moderately sparse punctures between parapsidal lines (i=1.5–3d), centre appearing flat;mesepisternum rugulose; tegula usually reddish brown; protrochanter unmodified; metapostnotum completely rugosocarinulate; T1 acarinarial fan with wide dorsal opening; and metasomal terga brown, apical impressed areas densely punctate. They are most similar to L. callidum, which has protrochanter very wide (Fig. 18B), mandible strongly curved at midlength of dorsal margin (Fig. 19B), and clypeus not much protruding below suborbital line.
Male L. versatum are similar to females but can be further recognised by the following combination: head round (length/width ratio = 1.00–1.01); face with dense tomentum; flagellomeres moderately long (length/width ratio = 1.43–1.60), brownish yellow ventrally; metabasitarsus four times as long as broad; and apical impressed areas of metasomal terga punctate. Similar species include L. dubitatum, L. callidum, L. laevissimum and L. mitchelli. Male L. dubitatum have a short and wide metabasitarsus approximately three times as long as broad. Male L. callidum have wide protrochanter. Male L. laevissimum and L. mitchelli have apical impressed areas of metasomal terga impunctate.
Range. Quebec, south to North Carolina, west to Manitoba, Kansas (Fig. 231). USA: AR, CT, DE, IL, IN, KS, MA, MD, ME, MO, NC, NY, PA, TN, VA, WI. CANADA: MB, ON, PQ.
DNA Barcode. Available. Multiple sequences.
The lectotype of L. versatum does not match the species that was most commonly referred to by this name in the literature
prior to Gibbs (2010b). Mitchell (1960) used this name (as Dialictus versatus) to refer to what is here called L. callidum. The behavioural study of L. versatum by Michener (1966) apparently was at least in part a study of L. trigeminum(see above).
Despite the common use of the specific epithet rohweri in earlier literature, the location of the type series of Halictus
subconnexus rohweri was not clear (Moure & Hurd 1987; Gibbs 2010b). Ellis (1915) based her original description on two specimens from Newington, Virginia. A specimen with matching locality information to that given in the description, with a handwritten label by Ellis reading “Halictus subconnexus rohweri Ellis”, was found at UCMC. It is here designated as the lectotype to fix the commonly used epithet rohweri to a physical specimen and thus clarify the application of the name. A lectotype label has been affixed to the specimen. The identity of the lectotype agrees with common usage of the name.