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Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792)
CHINOOK SALMON
King Salmon; Quinnat Salmon; Spring Salmon; Salmo tshawytscha Walbaum, 1792

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Salmonidae   Oncorhynchus


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/15f32786-b567-4a65-93d4-d30658fa1c65/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/15f32786-b567-4a65-93d4-d30658fa1c65/
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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CalPhotos     Photo Database

 

Number of matches : 8
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0704 0050 0030 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
ID: 0000 0000 0207 0778 [detail]
© 2007 Tom Greer tbphotos@comcast.net

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook Salmon
ID: 0000 0000 0311 2184 [detail]
© 2011 Bill Stagnaro

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook Salmon
ID: 0000 0000 0311 2186 [detail]
© 2011 Bill Stagnaro

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook Salmon
ID: 0000 0000 0311 2187 [detail]
© 2011 Bill Stagnaro

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook Salmon
ID: 0000 0000 0311 2188 [detail]
© 2011 Bill Stagnaro

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook Salmon
ID: 0000 0000 0311 2189 [detail]
© 2011 Bill Stagnaro

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Salmon
ID: 8030 3192 4155 0092 [detail]
Unknown (CAS)
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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CalPhotos is a project of BSCIT      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Oncorhynchus&speciesname=tshawytscha ---> http://www.fishbase.se/summary/Oncorhynchus-tshawytscha.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha   (Walbaum, 1792)

Chinook salmon Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon) Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Male picture by McDowall, R.M.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335 ) ;   tshawytscha: tshawytscha which is the vernacular name of this species in Kamchatka (Ref. 1998 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 375 m (Ref. 58426 ).   Temperate; ? - 25°C (Ref. 35682 ), preferred 4°C (Ref. 107945 ); 72°N - 27°N, 136°E - 109°W (Ref. 54251 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Arctic, Northwest to Northeast Pacific: drainages from Point Hope, Alaska to Ventura River, California, USA; occasionally strays south to San Diego in California, USA. Also in Honshu, Japan (Ref. 6793 ), Sea of Japan (Ref. 1998 ), Bering Sea (Ref. 2850 ) and Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 1998 ). Found in Coppermine River in the Arctic. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 82.2   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637 ); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258 ); max. published weight: 61.4 kg (Ref. 27547 ); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 12193 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-14; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 13 - 19; Vertebrae : 67 - 75. Distinguished by the small black spots on the back and on the upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin, and the black gums of the lower jaw (Ref. 27547 ). Body fusiform, streamlined, noticeably laterally compressed in large adults, somewhat deeper than other species (Ref. 6885 ). Gill rakers wide-spaced and rough; pelvic fins with axillary process (Ref. 27547 ). Fish in the sea are dark greenish to blue black on top of head and back, silvery to white on the lower sides and belly; numerous small, dark spots along back and upper sides and on both lobes of caudal; gum line of lower jaw black (Ref. 27547 ). In fresh water, with the approach of the breeding condition, the fish change to olive brown, red or purplish, the color change being more marked in males than in females (Ref. 27547 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults return to natal streams from the sea to spawn (Ref. 27547 ). Fry may migrate to the sea after only 3 months in fresh water, some may stay for as long as 3 years, but generally most stay a year in the stream before migrating (Ref. 27547 ). Some individuals remain close inshore throughout their lives, but some make extensive migrations (Ref. 27547 , 44894 ). Also found in lakes (Ref. 1998 ). Possibly up to 375 m depth (Ref. 6793 ). Epipelagic (Ref. 58426 ). Food in streams is mainly terrestrial insects and small crustaceans; in the sea, major food items include fishes, crustaceans, and other invertebrates (Ref. 27547 ). Young are preyed upon by fishes and birds (such as mergansers and kingfishers); adults are prey of large mammals and large birds (Ref. 1998 ). Highly regarded game fish (Ref. 27547 ). Flesh is usually red, but some are white; the red meat commands a higher price (Ref. 27547 ). Marketed fresh, smoked, frozen, and canned. Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988 ). Viscera said to contain high vitamin A content and used successfully as food for hatchery fish (Ref. 28971 , 28977 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Adults migrate up to 4,827 km upstream to spawn (Ref. 6850 ). Migration from the sea begins in December so that the the first fish are near river mouths by spring (Ref. 27547 ). Once a female selects a spot, she begins to dig a nest, driving away other females during the period of nest building. The female is attended by a larger, dominant male and several smaller males who drive away other males. While the female digs the nest, the male courts her by coming to rest beside her and quivering; by swimming about over her, touching her dorsal fin with his body and fins; and occasionally nudging her side gently with his snout (Ref. 28978 ). Upon completion of the nest, the female drops into it and is immediately joined by the dominant male. The fish open their mouths, vibrate, and eggs and sperm are released. At this point smaller males may dart into the nest and release sperm. The female then quickly moves to the upstrem edge of the nest and begins to dig. The eggs are covered and a new nest is made. The whole process is repeated until the female releases all her eggs, which may take several days. The male then leaves the female and may mate with another female. The female guards the nest for as long as she can. Spent adults usually die a few days after spawning. (Ref. 1998 , 27547 ). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr , 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 94142 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest (Ref. 12257 )




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Aquaculture: production ; fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | RFE Identification | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.4   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=4; tmax=9; Fec=4,000). Prior r = 0.38, 2 SD range = 0.14 - 0.99, log(r) = -0.97, SD log(r) = 0.48, Based on: 5 tgen, 1 tmax, 7 Fec records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum Comments & Corrections Sign our Guest Book Back to Search Random Species Back to Top
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Updated: 2017-06-27 22:50:03 gmt
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