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Pinus echinata Mill.
SHORTLEAF PINE
Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Pinus

Pinus echinata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pinus echinata

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Pinus echinata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pinus echinata
Pinus echinata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pinus echinata

Pinus echinata, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, whole tree - view up trunk
Pinus echinata, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, bark - of a large tree

Pinus echinata, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, bark - of a large tree
Pinus echinata, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, whole tree - view up trunk

Pinus echinata, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Pinus echinata, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Pinus echinata, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, leaf - entire needle
Pinus echinata, twig - after fallen needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, twig - after fallen needles

Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open
Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open

Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open
Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus echinata, cone - female - mature open

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Pestalotia acicola @ BPI (1)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella capillifera @ BPI (3)

Ceratostomella ips @ BPI (14)

Ceratostomella minor @ BPI (2)

Ceratostomella obscura @ 595477A (1); 595477B (1); BPI (1)

Ceratostomella pilifera @ BPI (12)

Ceratostomella pini @ BPI (2)

Ceratostomella pluriannulata @ BPI (2)

Ceratostomella schrenkiana @ BPI (13)
Aphididae  Eulachnus rileyi @ NCSU_ENT (3)

Schizolachnus parvus @ NCSU (5)
Biatorellaceae  Biatorella resinae @ BPI (4)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Dothiorella pinastri @ BPI (1)
Capnodiaceae  Capnodium @ BPI (1)
Ceratocystidaceae  Ceratocystis ips @ BPI (4)
Chaetomiaceae  Chaetomium fusiforme @ BPI (1)

Chaetomium @ BPI (3)
Chrysothricaceae  Chrysothrix xanthina @ I_TQST (6); GAL (1)
Coleosporiaceae  Coleosporium carneum @ BPI (76)

Coleosporium delicatulum @ BPI (10)

Coleosporium elephantopodis @ BPI (12)

Coleosporium helianthi @ BPI (2)

Coleosporium inconspicuum @ BPI (27)

Coleosporium ipomoeae @ BPI (122)

Coleosporium pinicola @ BPI (12)

Coleosporium solidaginis @ BPI (67)

Coleosporium terebinthinaceae @ BPI (21)

Coleosporium vernoniae @ BPI (43)
Coreidae  Leptoglossus corculus @ NCSU (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium berkeleyi @ BPI (2)

Corticium bombycinum @ BPI (1)

Corticium cremoricolor @ BPI (1)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (4)
Coryneliaceae  Caliciopsis pinea @ BPI (1)
Cronartiaceae  Cronartium cerebrum @ BPI (29)

Cronartium comandrae @ BPI (1)

Cronartium comptoniae @ BPI (4)

Cronartium filamentosum @ BPI (1)

Cronartium fusiforme @ BPI (1)

Cronartium quercuum @ BPI (3)

Peridermium carneum @ BPI (6)

Peridermium helianthi @ BPI (1)

Peridermium ipomoeae @ BPI (2)

Peridermium terebinthinaceae @ BPI (2)
Dermateaceae  Atropellis tingens @ BPI (20)

Atropellis @ BPI (2)

Gloeosporium @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Acutaspis perseae @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Chionaspis pinifoliae @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Echinosteliaceae  Echinostelium minutum @ BPI (1)
Entolomataceae  Claudopus nidulans @ BPI (1)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma tsugae @ BPI (1)
Gyalectaceae  Coenogonium pineti @ I_GBP (1)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium @ BPI (1)

Pezizella minuta @ BPI (1)

Tympanis pithya @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus ellisiana @ BPI (3)
Lachnocladiaceae  Vararia pallescens @ BPI (1)
Lecanoraceae  Lecanora strobilina @ GAL (3)
Lygaeidae  Neopamera bilobata @ NCSU (1)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (1)
Meliolaceae  Asteridiella pinicola @ BPI (2)
Meruliaceae  Merulius ambiguus @ BPI (3)

Merulius lacrimans @ BPI (1)
Microascaceae  Graphium aureum @ 448697B (1); 448697A (1); BPI (1)

Graphium penicillioides @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Ceratocapsus cecilsmithi @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Deraeocoris appalachianus @ NCSU (1)

Phoenicocoris rostratus @ NCSU_ENT (6)

Pilophorus heidemanni @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Pilophorus laetus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pilophorus tibialis @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria acicola @ BPI (2)

Septoria @ 375939A (1); 375939B (1)
Orbiliaceae  Orbilia @ BPI (1)
Papilionidae  Graphium atrovirens @ BPI (1)
Paxillaceae  Paxillus panuoides @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora gigantea @ BPI (2)

Peniophora setigera @ BPI (1)
Pleomassariaceae  Helminthosporium pinicola @ BPI (1)

Helminthosporium @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Cryptoporus volvatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes annosus @ BPI (4)

Fomes pini @ BPI (14)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (6)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus amorphus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus palustris @ BPI (2)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tenuis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus velutinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus @ BPI (2)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (1)

Poria ferrugineofusca @ BPI (1)

Poria hibernica @ BPI (1)

Poria ornata @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (6)

Poria subavellanea @ BPI (1)

Poria vaporaria @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (1)

Trametes carbonaria @ BPI (1)

Trametes odorata @ BPI (1)

Trametes pini @ BPI (1)

Trametes protracta @ BPI (1)
Rhizopogonaceae  Rhizopogon parasiticus @ BPI (1)
Rhytismataceae  Elytroderma deformans @ BPI (1)

Hypoderma hedgcockii @ BPI (14)

Hypoderma lethale @ BPI (33)

Lophodermium australe @ 651427B (1); 651426B (1); 651426A (1); 651427A (1)

Lophodermium pinastri @ BPI (6)

Lophodermium @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia furfurella @ BPI (1)
Stereocaulaceae  Lepraria friabilis @ I_GBP (1)
_  Cadophora @ BPI (1)

Hormiscium gelatinosum @ BPI (2)

Torula marginata @ BPI (1)

Zythia resinae @ BPI (1)

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The Gymnosperm Database

cone

Mature cones in situ on Pinus echinata at the botanical garden in Chapel Hill, NC [C.J. Earle, 2004.10.27].

bark

Bark on Pinus echinata 40 cm (above) and 50 cm (below) dbh; Weymouth Woods, NC [C.J. Earle, 2006.03].

 

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Conservation status

Pinus echinata

Miller 1768

Common names

Shortleaf pine, shortstraw pine, southern yellow pine.

Taxonomic notes

This species belongs to subgenus Pinus , subsection Australes Loudon. This subsection is comprised largely of species found in the SE US and Caribbean, and includes most of the pines that co-occur with this species in mixed stands (such as P. elliottii, P. glabra, P. palustris, P. serotina , and P. taeda ) are in the same subsection. It hybridizes naturally with P. taeda ; the hybrids tend to closely resemble P. echinata rather than P. taeda (Edwards-Burke et al. 1997). In eastern Kentucky (and perhaps elsewhere, where sympatric), P. echinata introgresses with Pinus rigida , producing trees with very small, P. rigida -shaped seed cones, and larger seed cones that are intermediate between the normal shape for each species (R. Clark email 2009.12.15).

Description

"Trees to 40 m; trunk to 1.2 m diam., straight; crown rounded to conic. Bark red-brown, scaly-plated, plates with evident resin pockets. Branches spreading-ascending; 2-year-old branchlets slender (ca. 5 mm or less), greenish brown to red-brown, often glaucous, aging red-brown to gray, roughened and cracking below leafy portion. Buds ovoid to cylindric, red-brown, 0.5-0.7(1) cm, resinous. Leaves 2(3) per fascicle, spreading-ascending, persistent 3-5 years, (5)7-11(13) cm x ca. 1 mm, straight, slightly twisted, gray- to yellow-green, all surfaces with fine stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex abruptly acute; sheath 0.5-1(1.5) cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 15-20 mm, yellow- to pale purple-green. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, semipersistent, solitary or clustered, spreading, symmetric, lanceoloid or narrowly ovoid before opening, ovoid-conic when open, 4-6(7) cm, red-brown, aging gray, nearly sessile or on stalks to 1cm, scales lacking contrasting dark border on adaxial surfaces distally; umbo central, with elongate to short, stout, sharp prickle. Seeds ellipsoid; body ca. 6 mm, gray to nearly black; wing 12-16 mm. 2 n =24" ( Kral 1993 ).

There are few similar species. The short needles and small cones (often presented in very large cone crops that are retained on the tree for several years) are quite distinctive.

Distribution and Ecology

USA: New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas. Typically in uplands, relatively dry forests at 200 to 610 m elevation; commonly in mixed stands with Pinus taeda ( Kral 1993 ). See also Thompson et al. (1999) . Hardy to Zone 6 (cold hardiness limit between -23.2°C and -17.8°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 ).

Distribution data from USGS (1999) .

Big tree

Diameter 108 cm, height 42 m, crown spread 23 m, located in Myrtle, MS (American Forests 1996). The tallest known one is in the Abrams Creek watershed in Tennessee; it is 45.5 m tall (Blozan 2011). Another tree, nearby in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, was 43.16 m tall in 2004 (Robert Van Pelt e-mail 2004.02.17).

Oldest

In 2007, the field class of the Dendroecological Fieldweek established a crossdated age of 324 years for tree GMX307, in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (Pederson 2008). Tree LAW38 with a crossdated age of 314 years, alive when collected in 1980 at Lake Winona Natural Area, Arkansas by D. Stahle and G. Hawks (NCDC 2006). It would be interesting to know if this tree survives.

Dendrochronology

Ethnobotany

Highly valued for timber and pulpwood ( Kral 1993 ).

Observations

I have seen it in the North Carolina sandhills, such as at the Weymouth Woods Sandhills Nature Preserve , but it it reportedly quite common in much of its range.

Remarks

Citations

American Forests 1996. The 1996-1997 National Register of Big Trees. Washington, DC: American Forests. This is a dated citation; the big tree register is now available online .

Blozan, Will. 2011.05.14. Abrams Creek, TN- new shortleaf pine and paw-paw record. www.ents-bbs.org/viewtopic.php?f=74&t=2487 , accessed 2011.05.15.

Edwards-Burke, M. A., J. L. Hamrick, and R. A. Price. 1997. Frequency and direction of hybridization in sympatric populations of Pinus taeda and P. echinata (Pinaceae). American Journal of Botany 84(8):879-886.

Miller, P. 1768. The Gardener's Dictionary , ed. 8. London. Pinus no. 12. Available: botanicus.org/title/b12066618 , accessed 2011.05.20.

[NCDC 2006] Data accessed at the National Climatic Data Center World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Tree-Ring Data Search page, 2006.09.08. URL: http://hurricane.ncdc.noaa.gov/pls/paleo/fm_createpages.treering .

Pederson, N. 2008. Eastern OlDLIST: A database of maximum tree ages for Eastern North America. http://people.eku.edu/pedersonn/oldlisteast/ , accessed 2008.12.07.

See also

Burns and Honkala (1990) .

The FEIS database .

Prasad and Iverson 1999 .

Wagner, D. B., Nance, W. L., Nelson, C. D., Li, T., Patel, R. N. and Govindaraju, D. R. 1991. Taxonomic patterns and inheritance of chloroplast variation in a survey of Pinus echinata , Pinus elliottii , Pinus palustris , and Pinus taeda . Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22:683-689.

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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Pinus echinata Mill.
shortleaf pine

Image of Pinus echinata

General Information
Symbol: PIEC2
Group: Gymnosperm
Family: Pinaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : L48   N
Characteristics
Data Source and Documentation
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

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©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, VA, Falls Church. Usage Requirements .

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden . United States, LA. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, DC, Washington. 1914. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, DC, Washington. 1914. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, DC, Washington. 1914. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, DC, Washington. 1914. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

Alfred R. Liddicoet. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, CA. 1939. Usage Requirements .

Bluford W. Muir. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR. 1938. Usage Requirements .

Bluford W. Muir. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR. 1938. Usage Requirements .

R.R. Reynolds. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR. 1941. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR. 1912. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AR, Ozark National Forest. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MO, Mark Twain National Forest. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MO, Mark Twain National Forest. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 58. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

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Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Pinus L. – pine
Species Pinus echinata Mill. – shortleaf pine

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Illinois shortleaf pine Endangered

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (PIEC2)
Flora of North America (PIEC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PIEC2)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (PIEC2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (PIEC2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (PIEC2)
Native Plants Network (PIEC2)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (PIEC2)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (PIEC2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (PIEC2)
Related Websites
AL-Alabama Forestry Commission (PIEC2)
AL-Auburn University Plant Identification Resource (PIEC2)
Forestry Images (PIEC2)
Gymnosperm Database (PIEC2)
NC-BOTNET Herbarium Specimen Images (PIEC2)
NC-Plant Fact Sheet (NCSU) (PIEC2)
OK-Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery (PIEC2)
OK-Oklahoma Biological Survey (PIEC2)
TX-Native Trees of Texas (TAMU) (PIEC2)
USDA FS Center for Wood Anatomy Research (PIEC2)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (PIEC2)
USFWS BayScapes Conservation Landscaping Program (PIEC2)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (PIEC2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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19. Pinus echinata Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Pinus no. 12. 1768.

Shortleaf pine

Trees to 40m; trunk to 1.2m diam., straight; crown rounded to conic. Bark red-brown, scaly-plated, plates with evident resin pockets. Branches spreading-ascending; 2-year-old branchlets slender (ca. 5mm or less), greenish brown to red-brown, often glaucous, aging red-brown to gray, roughened and cracking below leafy portion. Buds ovoid to cylindric, red-brown, 0.5--0.7(--1)cm, resinous. Leaves 2(--3) per fascicle, spreading-ascending, persistent 3--5 years, (5--)7--11(--13)cm ´ ca. 1mm, straight, slightly twisted, gray- to yellow-green, all surfaces with fine stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex abruptly acute; sheath 0.5--1(--1.5)cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 15--20mm, yellow- to pale purple-green. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, semipersistent, solitary or clustered, spreading, symmetric, lanceoloid or narrowly ovoid before opening, ovoid-conic when open, 4--6(--7)cm, red-brown, aging gray, nearly sessile or on stalks to 1cm, scales lacking contrasting dark border on adaxial surfaces distally; umbo central, with elongate to short, stout, sharp prickle. Seeds ellipsoid; body ca. 6mm, gray to nearly black; wing 12--16mm. 2 n =24.

Uplands, dry forests; 200--610m; Ala., Ark., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.

Although Pinus echinata is highly valued for timber and pulpwood, it is afflicted by root rot. It hybridizes with P . taeda , the pine most commonly associated with it.

Updated: 2018-06-19 01:44:34 gmt
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