Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Pinus no. 12. 1768.
Trees to 40m; trunk to 1.2m diam., straight; crown rounded to conic. Bark red-brown, scaly-plated, plates with evident resin pockets. Branches spreading-ascending; 2-year-old branchlets slender (ca. 5mm or less), greenish brown to red-brown, often glaucous, aging red-brown to gray, roughened and cracking below leafy portion. Buds ovoid to cylindric, red-brown, 0.5--0.7(--1)cm, resinous. Leaves 2(--3) per fascicle, spreading-ascending, persistent 3--5 years, (5--)7--11(--13)cm ´ ca. 1mm, straight, slightly twisted, gray- to yellow-green, all surfaces with fine stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex abruptly acute; sheath 0.5--1(--1.5)cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 15--20mm, yellow- to pale purple-green. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, semipersistent, solitary or clustered, spreading, symmetric, lanceoloid or narrowly ovoid before opening, ovoid-conic when open, 4--6(--7)cm, red-brown, aging gray, nearly sessile or on stalks to 1cm, scales lacking contrasting dark border on adaxial surfaces distally; umbo central, with elongate to short, stout, sharp prickle. Seeds ellipsoid; body ca. 6mm, gray to nearly black; wing 12--16mm. 2 n =24.
Uplands, dry forests; 200--610m; Ala., Ark., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.
Although Pinus echinata is highly valued for timber and pulpwood, it is afflicted by root rot. It hybridizes with P . taeda , the pine most commonly associated with it.