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Pinus taeda L.
LOBLOLLY PINE
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Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

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Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pinus taeda

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
_  Plantae @ I_GSJW (15)

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agyriaceae  Trapeliopsis flexuosa @ GAL (1)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ NCSU_ENT (58)

Essigella ( @ NCSU_ENT (2)

Eulachnus rileyi @ NCSU_ENT (67)

Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (52)

Schizolachnus parvus @ NCSU (28)

Schizolachnus pineti @ NCSU (4)

Uroleucon ( @ NCSU (1)
Candelariaceae  Candelaria concolor @ GAL (1)
Cercopidae  Aphrophora cribrata @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Chrysothricaceae  Chrysothrix xanthina @ GAL (4)

Chrysothrix @ GAL (1)
Cladoniaceae  Cladonia cristatella @ GAL (1)

Cladonia grayi @ GAL (1)

Cladonia parasitica @ GAL (1)

Cladonia ravenelii @ GAL (1)

Cladonia squamosa @ GAL (1)
Coccidae  Pseudophilippia quaintancii @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Cronartiaceae  Peridermium harknessii @ I_JP (9)
Derbidae  Anotia robertsonii @ UDCC_NRI (1)
Diaspididae  Acutaspis perseae @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Graphidaceae  Graphis scripta @ GAL (1)
Lecanoraceae  Lecanora strobilina @ GAL (6)

Pyrrhospora varians @ GAL (1)
Membracidae  Spissistilus festinus @ NCSU (1)
Miridae  Coridromius chenopoderis @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Gn_orthotylinigp33 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Goodeniaphila cassisi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phoenicocoris claricornis @ NCSU_ENT (2)

Pilophorus laetus @ MEMU_ENT (1); AMNH_PBI (1)

Ranzovius clavicornis @ NCSU_ENT (3)
Ochrolechiaceae  Ochrolechia pseudopallescens @ GAL (1)
Parmeliaceae  Bulbothrix laevigatula @ GAL (2)

Canoparmelia caroliniana @ GAL (4)

Canoparmelia salicinifera @ GAL (1)

Canoparmelia texana @ GAL (2)

Flavoparmelia caperata @ GAL (1)

Hypotrachyna osseoalba @ GAL (1)

Imshaugia aleurites @ GAL (1)

Myelochroa aurulenta @ GAL (1)

Parmeliopsis subambigua @ GAL (4)

Parmotrema gardneri @ GAL (1)

Parmotrema hypoleucinum @ I_GBP (1)

Parmotrema hypotropum @ GAL (2)

Parmotrema reticulatum @ I_GBP (1)

Parmotrema subisidiosum @ GAL (1)

Parmotrema tinctorum @ I_GBP (1)

Protoparmelia isidiata @ GAL (1)

Punctelia rudecta @ GAL (2)

Tuckermanella fendleri @ I_GBP (1)

Usnea mutabilis @ GAL (1)

Usnea scabrosa @ GAL (1)

Usnea @ GAL (1)
Physciaceae  Amandinea punctata @ GAL (2)

Heterodermia albicans @ GAL (1)
Pseudococcidae  Dysmicoccus obesus @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Oracella acuta @ CSCA_TCN (10)
Reduviidae  Apiomerus crassipes @ MEMU_ENT (3)

Emesaya brevipennis @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Pygolampis pectoralis @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Rhynocoris @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Sinea spinipes @ MEMU_ENT (3)

Zelus tetracanthus @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Stereocaulaceae  Lepraria friabilis @ I_GBP (1)
Teloschistaceae  Caloplaca cerina @ GAL (1)

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Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
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painting

Representative painting of an old-growth tree on the floodplain at Congaree Swamp National Park (National Park Service, 1995).

photo

A typical tree in the Congaree Swamp forest: 116 cm dbh [C.J. Earle, 1999.03].

photo

Bark of a tree in Congaree Swamp. Rule is 15 cm long [C.J. Earle, 1999.03].

photo

Branch with foliage and cones, near Congaree Swamp, SC [C.J. Earle, 1999.03].

photo

Seed cone, Weymouth Woods, NC [C.J. Earle, 2006.03].

photo

Ripe pollen cones, Weymouth Woods, NC [C.J. Earle, 2006.03].

 

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional

Conservation status

Pinus taeda

Linnaeus 1753 , p. 1000

Common names

Loblolly pine ( Kral 1993 ), North Carolina pine, oldfield pine, bull pine, rosemary pine. Commonly called "taeda" when used in plantation forestry outside its native range.

Taxonomic notes

It occurs in subgenus Pinus , subsection Australes Loudon. This subsection is comprised largely of species found in the SE US and Caribbean, and includes most of the pines that co-occur with this species in mixed stands, such as P. echinata , P. elliottii , P. glabra , Pinus palustris , and P. serotina .

Pinus taeda forms a variety of natural hybrids. Natural hybrids with Pinus serotina have been observed in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina (Baker and Langdon 1990). Natural hybrids with P. rigida occur in New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland (Fowells 1965 and Saylor and Kang 1973, both cited in Baker and Langdon 1990), and natural hybrids of with P. echinata occur in Oklahoma and east Texas (Dorman 1976, Fowells 1965, and Hare & Switzer 1969, all cited in Baker and Langdon 1990), and probably also in Louisiana and Arkansas (Baker and Langdon 1990). The natural hybrid with Pinus palustris is often called Pinus × sondereggeri , although the name Pinus × sondereggeri has not been validly published (Chapman [1922] merely suggested the name "Pinus Sondereggeri"). See the "Remarks" section for further information on this widespread natural hybrid.

Description

"Trees to 46 m; trunk to 160 cm diam., usually straight, without adventitious shoots; crown broadly conic to rounded. Bark red-brown, forming square or irregularly rectangular, scaly plates, resin pockets absent. Branches spreading-ascending; twigs moderately slender (to ca. 1 cm thick), orangish to yellow-brown, aging darker brown, rough. Buds lance-cylindric, pale red-brown, 1-1.2(1) cm, mostly less than 1 cm broad, slightly resinous; scale margins white-fringed, apex acuminate. Leaves 2-3 per fascicle, ascending to spreading, persisting 3 years, (10)12-18(23) cm × 1-2 mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, deep yellow-green, all surfaces with narrow stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex acute to abruptly conic-subulate; sheath 1-2.5 cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 20-40 mm, yellow to yellow-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds soon thereafter, not persistent, solitary or in small clusters, nearly terminal, symmetric, lanceoloid before opening, narrowly ovoid when open, 6-12 cm, mostly dull yellow-brown, sessile to nearly sessile, scales without dark border on adaxial surface distally; apophyses dull, slightly thickened, variously raised (more so toward cone base), rhombic, strongly transversely keeled; umbo central, recurved, stoutly pyramidal, tapering to stout-based, sharp prickle. Seeds obdeltoid; body 5-6 mm, red-brown; wing to 20 mm. 2 n =24" ( Kral 1993 ).

Distribution and Ecology

USA: New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas at 0-700 m elevation. Habitat mesic lowlands and swamp borders, to dry uplands ( Kral 1993 ). Hardy to Zone 7 (cold hardiness limit between -17.7°C and -12.2°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 ). See also Thompson et al. (1999) .

Distribution data from USGS (1999) .

Big tree

Diameter 152 cm, height 45 m, crown spread 25 m, located in Warren, AR ( American Forests 1996 ). Southease of Warren, Ashley County also has some large trees, and General Land Office survey records (which are the closest thing we have to presettlement data) record trees up to 182 cm dbh (18.8 feet girth) (Bragg 2006). The largest tree in South Carolina, in Congaree Swamp National Park, has a dbh of 152 cm, height 44 m, stem volume 42 m 3 (Robert Van Pelt e-mail 2004.02.17). Other trees in the Congaree have been measured to heights as great as 52.7 m (173 feet), with the tallest (probably still) living tree measured at 51.4 m (168.7 feet) (Blozan 2005). These are lasered heights calculated during a comprehensive survey; taller trees have been reported from the Congaree in the past, but they were measured using survey methods notoriously prone to overestimation (Will Blozan e-mail 2007.08.27). Trees up to 46 m tall have been reported for the Lost Forty forest ( 33° 23'N, 92° 23'W ) in south-central Arkansas (Heitzman et al. 2004).

A tree 60.0 m tall was climbed and measured on 2011.02.18, at the Buffelsnek plantation, Knysna, South Africa (Leon Visser email 2014.11.05).

Oldest

There is a crossdated age of 191 years for specimen UC04-2 collected at Union Camp Big Woods, North Carolina by A.C. Barefoot and W.L. Hafley in 1985 (NCDC 2006). Pederson (2006) reports a ring-counted age of 241 years for a big tree in the Congaree National Park, South Carolina.

Dendrochronology

Ethnobotany

In the southeast US, P. taeda is commonly used in plantation forestry, along with P. elliottii and P. echinata . Commercially, it is a valuable pulpwood and timber species ( Kral 1993 ). It is also an important timber species outside its native range, with substantial plantations in South Africa, Zimbabwe, southern Brazil, Argentina, China and Australia.

Observations

One of the best places to see old-growth loblolly pines is Congaree National Park, South Carolina, where the trees grows as emergents approximately 46 m tall above a subtropical broadleaf floodplain forest canopy. Another old growth forest remnant occurs in Arkansas at the Levi Wilcoxon Demonstration Forest (LWDF) south of Hamburg (Bragg 2006). It is also well represented in a mixed stand with Pinus palustris at Weymouth Woods Sandhills Nature Preserve in North Carolina.

Remarks

The epithet taeda is a Latin word for pine wood, or for a torch ( Farjon 2010 ).

Originally most races of Pinus taeda were in the lowlands. Following disturbance of the natural vegetation after settlement by Europeans, the species spread to fine-textured, fallow, upland soils, where it now occurs intermixed with P. echinata and P. virginiana ( Kral 1993 ).

The natural hybrid with Pinus palustris is commonly called Pinus × sondereggeri , bastard pine, or Sonderegger pine (named for the Louisiana state forester who called its existence to the attention of H.H. Chapman). The hybrid is widespread and occurs in Louisiana and east Texas. It arises when the cone of P. palustris is fertilized by the pollen of P. taeda . The resulting trees generally have intermediate characters, but lack the "grass stage" and early slow growth of P. palustris ; conversely, the cones are more like P. palustris than P. taeda . Chapman (1922) provides further details of identification. Chapman also claims superior growth performance for the hybrid, but a more recent and quantitative study indicates that height, diameter and volume were not significantly different from P. taeda for a 20-year-old plantation in South Carolina (Henderson and Schoenike 1981).

Citations

Baker, J.B. and O.G. Langdon. 1990. Loblolly Pine, in Burns and Honkala (1990) .

Blozan, Will. 2005. Congaree National Park 1/14-16/2004. http://www.nativetreesociety.org/fieldtrips/south_carolina/congaree_national_park_1.htm , accessed 2007.08.27.

Bragg, Don. 2006. LWDF and a champion shortleaf pine. http://www.nativetreesociety.org/fieldtrips/arkansas/lwdf_shortleaf.htm , accessed 2007.08.27.

Chapman, H.H. 1922. A new hybrid pine. Journal of Forestry 20:729-734.

Dorman, Keith W. 1976. The genetics and breeding of southern pines . Agriculture Handbook 471. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 407 p.

Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States . Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 762 p.

Hare, R.C., and G.L. Switzer. 1969. Introgression with shortleaf pine may explain rust resistance in western loblolly pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Note SO-88. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 7 p.

Heitzman, E., M.G. Shelton, and A. Grell. 2004. Species composition, size structure, and disturbance history of an old-growth bottomland hardwood-loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forest in Arkansas, USA. Natural Areas Journal 24(3):177-187. Available: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/9494 (2008.10.15).

Henderson, L.T. and R.E. Schoenike. 1981. How good is Sonderegger pine? Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 5(4):183-186.

National Park Service. 1995. Congaree Swamp Official Map and Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office [Paintings by John Dawson].

[NCDC 2006] Data accessed at the National Climatic Data Center World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Tree-Ring Data Search Page, 2006.09.08. URL: http://hurricane.ncdc.noaa.gov/pls/paleo/fm_createpages.treering .

Saylor, L.C. and K.W. Kang. 1973. A study of sympatric populations of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus serotina Michx. in North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 89:101-110.

See also

The FEIS database .

Pederson, N., R.H. Jones, and R.R. Sharitz. 1997. Age structure of old-growth loblolly pine stands in a floodplain forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 124(2):111-123.

Schultz, R. P. 1997. Loblolly Pine. USDA. For. Serv. Agric. Handb. 73. Washington DC.

Wagner, D. B., Nance, W. L., Nelson, C. D., Li, T., Patel, R. N. and Govindaraju, D. R. 1991. Taxonomic patterns and inheritance of chloroplast variation in a survey of Pinus echinata , Pinus elliottii , Pinus palustris , and Pinus taeda . Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22:683-689.

Wu and Raven (1999) : the Flora of China, which is available online, has a good description and line drawing (it is a common plantation species in parts of China).

Home

Back | Site map | Contact us

Copyright 2017 The Gymnosperm Database

Edited by Christopher J. Earle


Back to top

Last Modified 2017-01-16

Following served from Iowa State University
   
Top | See original context

Following modified from Virginia Tech Forestry Department
   
Top | See original

&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/ptaeda.htm

Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
   Top | See original

http://www.conifers.org/pi/pin/taeda.htm ---> http://www.conifers.org/pi/Pinus_taeda.php
Gymnosperm Database Link to jump to start of content Home Topics Bookstore Links Site Map Contact Us

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painting

Representative painting of an old-growth tree on the floodplain at Congaree Swamp National Park (National Park Service, 1995).

photo

A typical tree in the Congaree Swamp forest: 116 cm dbh [C.J. Earle, 1999.03].

photo

Bark of a tree in Congaree Swamp. Rule is 15 cm long [C.J. Earle, 1999.03].

photo

Branch with foliage and cones, near Congaree Swamp, SC [C.J. Earle, 1999.03].

photo

Seed cone, Weymouth Woods, NC [C.J. Earle, 2006.03].

photo

Ripe pollen cones, Weymouth Woods, NC [C.J. Earle, 2006.03].

 

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional

Conservation status

Pinus taeda

Linnaeus 1753 , p. 1000

Common names

Loblolly pine ( Kral 1993 ), North Carolina pine, oldfield pine, bull pine, rosemary pine. Commonly called "taeda" when used in plantation forestry outside its native range.

Taxonomic notes

It occurs in subgenus Pinus , subsection Australes Loudon. This subsection is comprised largely of species found in the SE US and Caribbean, and includes most of the pines that co-occur with this species in mixed stands, such as P. echinata , P. elliottii , P. glabra , Pinus palustris , and P. serotina .

Pinus taeda forms a variety of natural hybrids. Natural hybrids with Pinus serotina have been observed in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina (Baker and Langdon 1990). Natural hybrids with P. rigida occur in New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland (Fowells 1965 and Saylor and Kang 1973, both cited in Baker and Langdon 1990), and natural hybrids of with P. echinata occur in Oklahoma and east Texas (Dorman 1976, Fowells 1965, and Hare & Switzer 1969, all cited in Baker and Langdon 1990), and probably also in Louisiana and Arkansas (Baker and Langdon 1990). The natural hybrid with Pinus palustris is often called Pinus × sondereggeri , although the name Pinus × sondereggeri has not been validly published (Chapman [1922] merely suggested the name "Pinus Sondereggeri"). See the "Remarks" section for further information on this widespread natural hybrid.

Description

"Trees to 46 m; trunk to 160 cm diam., usually straight, without adventitious shoots; crown broadly conic to rounded. Bark red-brown, forming square or irregularly rectangular, scaly plates, resin pockets absent. Branches spreading-ascending; twigs moderately slender (to ca. 1 cm thick), orangish to yellow-brown, aging darker brown, rough. Buds lance-cylindric, pale red-brown, 1-1.2(1) cm, mostly less than 1 cm broad, slightly resinous; scale margins white-fringed, apex acuminate. Leaves 2-3 per fascicle, ascending to spreading, persisting 3 years, (10)12-18(23) cm × 1-2 mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, deep yellow-green, all surfaces with narrow stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex acute to abruptly conic-subulate; sheath 1-2.5 cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 20-40 mm, yellow to yellow-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds soon thereafter, not persistent, solitary or in small clusters, nearly terminal, symmetric, lanceoloid before opening, narrowly ovoid when open, 6-12 cm, mostly dull yellow-brown, sessile to nearly sessile, scales without dark border on adaxial surface distally; apophyses dull, slightly thickened, variously raised (more so toward cone base), rhombic, strongly transversely keeled; umbo central, recurved, stoutly pyramidal, tapering to stout-based, sharp prickle. Seeds obdeltoid; body 5-6 mm, red-brown; wing to 20 mm. 2 n =24" ( Kral 1993 ).

Distribution and Ecology

USA: New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas at 0-700 m elevation. Habitat mesic lowlands and swamp borders, to dry uplands ( Kral 1993 ). Hardy to Zone 7 (cold hardiness limit between -17.7°C and -12.2°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 ). See also Thompson et al. (1999) .

Distribution data from USGS (1999) .

Big tree

Diameter 152 cm, height 45 m, crown spread 25 m, located in Warren, AR ( American Forests 1996 ). Southease of Warren, Ashley County also has some large trees, and General Land Office survey records (which are the closest thing we have to presettlement data) record trees up to 182 cm dbh (18.8 feet girth) (Bragg 2006). The largest tree in South Carolina, in Congaree Swamp National Park, has a dbh of 152 cm, height 44 m, stem volume 42 m 3 (Robert Van Pelt e-mail 2004.02.17). Other trees in the Congaree have been measured to heights as great as 52.7 m (173 feet), with the tallest (probably still) living tree measured at 51.4 m (168.7 feet) (Blozan 2005). These are lasered heights calculated during a comprehensive survey; taller trees have been reported from the Congaree in the past, but they were measured using survey methods notoriously prone to overestimation (Will Blozan e-mail 2007.08.27). Trees up to 46 m tall have been reported for the Lost Forty forest ( 33° 23'N, 92° 23'W ) in south-central Arkansas (Heitzman et al. 2004).

A tree 60.0 m tall was climbed and measured on 2011.02.18, at the Buffelsnek plantation, Knysna, South Africa (Leon Visser email 2014.11.05).

Oldest

There is a crossdated age of 191 years for specimen UC04-2 collected at Union Camp Big Woods, North Carolina by A.C. Barefoot and W.L. Hafley in 1985 (NCDC 2006). Pederson (2006) reports a ring-counted age of 241 years for a big tree in the Congaree National Park, South Carolina.

Dendrochronology

Ethnobotany

In the southeast US, P. taeda is commonly used in plantation forestry, along with P. elliottii and P. echinata . Commercially, it is a valuable pulpwood and timber species ( Kral 1993 ). It is also an important timber species outside its native range, with substantial plantations in South Africa, Zimbabwe, southern Brazil, Argentina, China and Australia.

Observations

One of the best places to see old-growth loblolly pines is Congaree National Park, South Carolina, where the trees grows as emergents approximately 46 m tall above a subtropical broadleaf floodplain forest canopy. Another old growth forest remnant occurs in Arkansas at the Levi Wilcoxon Demonstration Forest (LWDF) south of Hamburg (Bragg 2006). It is also well represented in a mixed stand with Pinus palustris at Weymouth Woods Sandhills Nature Preserve in North Carolina.

Remarks

The epithet taeda is a Latin word for pine wood, or for a torch ( Farjon 2010 ).

Originally most races of Pinus taeda were in the lowlands. Following disturbance of the natural vegetation after settlement by Europeans, the species spread to fine-textured, fallow, upland soils, where it now occurs intermixed with P. echinata and P. virginiana ( Kral 1993 ).

The natural hybrid with Pinus palustris is commonly called Pinus × sondereggeri , bastard pine, or Sonderegger pine (named for the Louisiana state forester who called its existence to the attention of H.H. Chapman). The hybrid is widespread and occurs in Louisiana and east Texas. It arises when the cone of P. palustris is fertilized by the pollen of P. taeda . The resulting trees generally have intermediate characters, but lack the "grass stage" and early slow growth of P. palustris ; conversely, the cones are more like P. palustris than P. taeda . Chapman (1922) provides further details of identification. Chapman also claims superior growth performance for the hybrid, but a more recent and quantitative study indicates that height, diameter and volume were not significantly different from P. taeda for a 20-year-old plantation in South Carolina (Henderson and Schoenike 1981).

Citations

Baker, J.B. and O.G. Langdon. 1990. Loblolly Pine, in Burns and Honkala (1990) .

Blozan, Will. 2005. Congaree National Park 1/14-16/2004. http://www.nativetreesociety.org/fieldtrips/south_carolina/congaree_national_park_1.htm , accessed 2007.08.27.

Bragg, Don. 2006. LWDF and a champion shortleaf pine. http://www.nativetreesociety.org/fieldtrips/arkansas/lwdf_shortleaf.htm , accessed 2007.08.27.

Chapman, H.H. 1922. A new hybrid pine. Journal of Forestry 20:729-734.

Dorman, Keith W. 1976. The genetics and breeding of southern pines . Agriculture Handbook 471. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 407 p.

Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States . Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 762 p.

Hare, R.C., and G.L. Switzer. 1969. Introgression with shortleaf pine may explain rust resistance in western loblolly pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Note SO-88. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 7 p.

Heitzman, E., M.G. Shelton, and A. Grell. 2004. Species composition, size structure, and disturbance history of an old-growth bottomland hardwood-loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forest in Arkansas, USA. Natural Areas Journal 24(3):177-187. Available: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/9494 (2008.10.15).

Henderson, L.T. and R.E. Schoenike. 1981. How good is Sonderegger pine? Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 5(4):183-186.

National Park Service. 1995. Congaree Swamp Official Map and Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office [Paintings by John Dawson].

[NCDC 2006] Data accessed at the National Climatic Data Center World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Tree-Ring Data Search Page, 2006.09.08. URL: http://hurricane.ncdc.noaa.gov/pls/paleo/fm_createpages.treering .

Saylor, L.C. and K.W. Kang. 1973. A study of sympatric populations of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus serotina Michx. in North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 89:101-110.

See also

The FEIS database .

Pederson, N., R.H. Jones, and R.R. Sharitz. 1997. Age structure of old-growth loblolly pine stands in a floodplain forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 124(2):111-123.

Schultz, R. P. 1997. Loblolly Pine. USDA. For. Serv. Agric. Handb. 73. Washington DC.

Wagner, D. B., Nance, W. L., Nelson, C. D., Li, T., Patel, R. N. and Govindaraju, D. R. 1991. Taxonomic patterns and inheritance of chloroplast variation in a survey of Pinus echinata , Pinus elliottii , Pinus palustris , and Pinus taeda . Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22:683-689.

Wu and Raven (1999) : the Flora of China, which is available online, has a good description and line drawing (it is a common plantation species in parts of China).

Home

Back | Site map | Contact us

Copyright 2017 The Gymnosperm Database

Edited by Christopher J. Earle


Back to top

Last Modified 2017-01-16

Following modified from US Forest Service
   Top | See original

&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/pinus/taeda.htm

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
   Top | See original

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PITA ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PITA
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 501 Protocol scheme 'https' is not supported (LWP::Protocol::https not installed) https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PITA

Following modified from Flora of North America
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18. Pinus taeda Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1000. 1753.

Loblolly pine

Trees to 46m; trunk to 1.6m diam., usually straight, without adventitious shoots; crown broadly conic to rounded. Bark red-brown, forming square or irregularly rectangular, scaly plates, resin pockets absent. Branches spreading-ascending; twigs moderately slender (to ca. 1cm thick), orangish to yellow-brown, aging darker brown, rough. Buds lance-cylindric, pale red-brown, 1--1.2(--2)cm, mostly less than 1cm broad, slightly resinous; scale margins white-fringed, apex acuminate. Leaves 2--3 per fascicle, ascending to spreading, persisting 3 years, (10--)12--18(--23)cm ´ 1--2mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, deep yellow-green, all surfaces with narrow stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex acute to abruptly conic-subulate; sheath 1--2.5cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 20--40mm, yellow to yellow-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds soon thereafter, not persistent, solitary or in small clusters, nearly terminal, symmetric, lanceoloid before opening, narrowly ovoid when open, 6--12cm, mostly dull yellow-brown, sessile to nearly sessile, scales without dark border on adaxial surface distally; apophyses dull, slightly thickened, variously raised (more so toward cone base), rhombic, strongly transversely keeled; umbo central, recurved, stoutly pyramidal, tapering to stout-based, sharp prickle. Seeds obdeltoid; body 5--6mm, red-brown; wing to 20mm. 2 n =24.

Mesic lowlands and swamp borders to dry uplands; 0--700m; Ala., Ark., Del., Fla, Ga., Ky., La., Md., Miss., N.J., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va.

Originally most races of Pinus taeda were in the lowlands. Following disturbance of the natural vegetation after settlement by Europeans, the species spread to fine-textured, fallow, upland soils, where it now occurs intermixed with P . echinata and P . virginiana . In the Southeast P . taeda is commonly used in plantation forestry, along with P . elliottii and P . echinata . Pinus taeda frequently forms hybrids with P . echinata and P . palustris ( P . ´ sondereggeri H.H. Chapman). Commercially, it is a valuable pulpwood and timber species.

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Number of matches : 13
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Pinus taeda%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1246 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1245 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1243 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1244 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1247 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1248 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1249 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0214 1250 [detail]
2014 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0115 1484 [detail]
2015 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0115 1485 [detail]
2015 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0115 1486 [detail]
2015 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0115 1487 [detail]
2015 Nick Kurzenko

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0115 1488 [detail]
2015 Nick Kurzenko

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