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Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859
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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/9bcac23f-7682-47a2-b88e-0f38bd19c525 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/9bcac23f-7682-47a2-b88e-0f38bd19c525
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Cyprinodontiformes  
 Family Poeciliidae  
 Genus Poecilia  
  Poecilia reticulata    Peters, 1859 
Provider: Tseng, Chin-Tsian 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Acanthophacelus guppii Acanthophacelus reticulatus Girardinus guppii Girardinus reticulatus Haridichthys reticulatus Heterandria guppyi Lebistes poecilioides Lebistes poeciloides Lebistes reticulatus Pocilia reticulata Poecilia reticulate details
Citation: 臺灣淡水及河口魚類誌(陳及方, 1999); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Character: Head moderately large, broad and horizontal dorsally. Snout short. Eye large, on side of head. Mouth protractile, oblique; posterior of jaw distant from anterior margin of eye. Body elongated, slightly cylindrical and posterior laterally compressed; dorsal profile horizontal, ventral profile arched to end of anal fin. Scales large; lateral line absent; longitudinal scales:26-28; predorsal scales:11-13. Dorsal soft rays:7-8; pectoral soft rays:13-14; pelvic soft rays:5; anal soft rays:8-9 (female). Sexually dichromatic; appearance of female similar to female of Gambusia affinis, brownish or grayish, slightly transparent; darker dorsally and grayish white ventrally; male gorgeous, several colorful longitudinal stripes on side of body. 
Habitat: Prefers standing to slow running water, can be found in ponds, paddy fields and slow moving reaches of river, especially vegetated environments. Highly tolerant to low dissolved oxygen and pollution, even occurs in highly turbid canals and ditches. The th 
Distribution: Southern America. Introduced to Taiwan in 1970’ for ornamentation, can be found in whole island of Taiwan. 
Name Code: 381035
  IUCN Red List:NL      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)    Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)  
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Poecilia+reticulata&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Poecilia+reticulata&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 501 Protocol scheme 'https' is not supported (LWP::Protocol::https not installed) https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Poecilia+reticulata&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Poecilia&speciesname=reticulata ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Poecilia-reticulata.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Poecilia reticulata   Peters , 1859

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Poecilia reticulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae (Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Poecilia: Greek, poikilos = with a lot of colours (Ref. 45335 ) .   More on author: Peters .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; non-migratory.   Tropical; 18°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672 ); 14°N - 2°N, 67°W - 52°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Venezuela, Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guyanas. Widely introduced and established elsewhere, mainly for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral effects on native fishes (Ref. 12217 ). Africa: Feral populations reported from the coastal reaches of Natal rivers from Durban southwards, as well as in the Kuruman Eye and Lake Otjikoto in Namibia (Ref. 7248 ). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043 ); 6.0 cm SL (female); common length : 2.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-8; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 8 - 10

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits warm springs and their effluents, weedy ditches and canals (Ref. 5723 ). Found in various habitats, ranging from highly turbid water in ponds, canals and ditches at low elevations to pristine mountain streams at high elevations (Ref. 11225 ). Occurs in wide variety of habitats with low predation pressure, usually in very small streams and densely vegetated lakes and springs (Ref. 59043 ). Has a wide salinity range but requires fairly warm temperatures (23-24 °C) and quiet vegetated water for survival (Ref. 7248 , 44894 , 79840 ). Feeds on zooplankton, small insects and detritus. One of the most popular aquarium fishes with many standardized varieties. Used in genetics research. Female reaches 5 cm SL (Ref. 2847 ). Males mature at 2 months and females at 3 months of age (Ref. 1672 ). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539 ). A very popular and widely available species in the aquarium trade. In Australia, wild populations were established prior to the 1970s, undoubtedly the result of thoughtless aquarists discarding unwanted pets (Ref. 44894 ). Maximum length for female taken from Ref. 43281.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Males are about half the size of females with colorful tail and caudal fin; the anal fin is transformed into a gonopodium for internal fertilization. Males are continuously chasing and mating females. Females can store sperms for later fertilization and may produce young every four weeks. Pregnant females are recognizable by black triangle between anal and pelvic fins. After a gestation period of four to six weeks females give birth to 20-40 live young. No parental care is exercised and parents may even prey on their young.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Rodriguez, C.M. , 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Poeciliini (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). Copeia 1997(4):663-679. (Ref. 26855 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00416 - 0.02191), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.2   ±0.40 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.16-0.25; Fec=20-40 with multiple spawning per year). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Torres, Armi G. Fish Forum
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