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Ratibida columnifera (Nutt. ) Wooton &. Standl.
Upright prairie coneflower

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Asteraceae   Ratibida

Ratibida columnifera, flower
© Kay Yatskievych, 2003 · 1
Ratibida columnifera, flower

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Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Andrena rudbeckiae @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Andrena runcinatae @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Perdita lepachidis @ UCRC_ENT (5)
Apidae  Holcopasites heliopsis @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Melissodes perlusa @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Melissodes wheeleri @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Colletidae  Colletes rufocinctus @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Entylomataceae  Entyloma compositarum @ BPI (1)

Entyloma polysporum @ BPI (1)
Halictidae  Agapostemon texanus @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Dieunomia bolliana @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Halictus ligatus @ AMNH_BEE (13)

Lasioglossum leucocomum @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Lasioglossum lineatulum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Lasioglossum pectorale @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Lasioglossum perpunctatum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Lasioglossum semicaeruleum @ AMNH_BEE (7)
Megachilidae  Coelioxys texana @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Megachile texana @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria lepachydis @ BPI (1)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Leptosphaeria dumetorum @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standley Columnar Prairie Coneflower
Asteraceae — Aster family
Ratibida columnifera
This plant is not on the Delaware flora checklist .  It is native to North America, but not to Delaware. Brandywine Creek State Park
August 2007

More information on this plant, from other sources.

Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. - Long-head Coneflower

Ratibida columnifera plant

Family - Asteraceae

Stems - To -1m tall, erect, multiple from base, simple to branching above, herbaceous, scabrous, antrorse strigose, carinate, angled, from taproot.

Ratibida columnifera stem

Leaves - Alternate, deeply pinnatifid, petiolate below, sessile above, to +10cm long, +5cm broad, scabrous, antrorse strigose. Lobes often divided. Ultimate divisions linear to linear-oblong, to 3mm broad, entire, acute.

Ratibida columnifera leaf

Ratibida columnifera leaf

Inflorescence - Single flower head terminating stem. Peduncle naked, to +20cm long, antrorse strigose.

Involucre - Phyllaries typically in two series of long outer bracts and inner series of minute bracts. Outer phyllaries linear-attenuate, to 6mm long, spreading, antrorse strigose. Inner phyllaries ovate, to +1mm long, densely pubescent.

Ratibida columnifera involucre Involucre (rays removed).

Ray flowers - Sterile. Typically 6, yellow or with brownish-purple and yellow apices, to +2cm long, +1.5cm broad, pubescent below, glabrous above, spreading to reflexed, notched at apex. Achene black, 1.5mm long, 3-sided, pubescent above. Pappus typically absent or a minute crown.

Ratibida columnifera flower

Ratibida columnifera flower

Disk flowers - Fertile. Corolla 5-lobed, purple. Tube to 1.8mm long, glabrous. Achenes white in flower, compressed, 2.5mm long, 1.5mm broad, with some pubescence. Pappus typically absent or a minute crown. Receptacle columnar, 1.5mm in diameter, to -2cm long. Chaff with deep purple spot near apex, equaling or exceeding the achenes, ciliate-margined.

Ratibida columnifera disk Disk close-up.

Flowering - June - September.

Habitat - Prairies, waste ground, disturbed sites, roadsides, railroads.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This striking plant is locally common in some parts of the state but is not wild throughout. It is, however, commonly cultivated and will not doubt escape and spread.
The two forms of the plant are shown above. Form columnifera has the completely yellow ligules. Form pulcherrima (DC.) Fern. has the ligules which are purplish-brown with yellow at the apex.
The disk flowers bloom in an indeterminate fashion along the receptacle.
The name " columnifera " means "column producing", and indeed, the flower does have the distinct columnar receptacle.

Photographs taken of Hwy 60 near Van Buren, MO., 6-20-04.


Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RACO3 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RACO3
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Following modified from Flora of North America
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Link to Flora of North America home
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FNA Vol. 21 Page 61, 62 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 21 | Asteraceae | Ratibida

1. Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton & Standley, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 19: 706. 1915.

Upright prairie coneflower, redspike Mexican-hat.

Rudbeckia columnifera Nuttall, Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana, no. 75. 1813; Ratibida columnaris (Sims) D. Don

Perennials, to 105+ cm; taprooted. Leaves 2—15+ × 0.8—6 cm, 1—2-pinnatifid, lobes 3—14, narrowly linear-lanceolate to narrowly oblong-ovate, 1—16 mm wide, faces hirsute, gland-dotted. Heads 1—15, held well beyond leaves. Peduncles (1.5—)6.5—48+ cm (ribs tan, prominent). Phyllaries 5—14, outer linear, 4—14 × 0.5—2 mm, inner lanceolate-ovate, 0.8—3 × 0.8—2 mm. Paleae 2.3—3.5 × 0.5—3 mm, resin glands oval-oblanceolate, 0.6—1.5 mm. Ray florets 4—12; corollas yellow, purplish yellow, or maroon, sometimes bicolor (maroon/yellow), laminae lanceolate-ovate to elliptic-oblanceolate, 7—35 × 4—17 mm. Discs columnar, 10—50 × 7—12 mm. Disc florets 200—400+; corollas greenish yellow, often purplish distally, 1—2.5 mm; style branches 0.5—1.4 mm, proximal 2 /3— 3 /4 stigmatic, apices rounded. Cypselae oblong, 1.2—3 × 1.2—2 mm, abaxial margins glabrous, adaxial margins and apices glabrous or ciliate; pappi (tan) usually of 1—2 toothlike projections, sometimes 0. 2 n = 28.

Flowering Mar—Nov. Prairies; 10—2200 m; Alta., B.C., Man., Ont., Sask.; Ariz., Ark., Colo., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., La., Mass., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.J., N.Mex., N.C., N.Dak., Okla., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Wis., Wyo.; Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).

Ratibida columnifera is grown as an ornamental and is often included in wild flower plantings. Such activities may extend the geographic range of the species to roadsides and prairie-like habitats.

Some variants of Ratibida columnifera have been treated as varieties or forms. The most prominent of these is forma pulcherrima (de Candolle) Fernald, which is characterized by its showy, purplish yellow to purple rays; it is more frequent in the southwestern part of the range of the species. In the typical form, rays are yellow (E. L. Richards 1968).

Some authors have argued that Ratibida columnaris (Sims) D. Don is the correct name for this species; J. L. Reveal (1968) and E. L. Richards (1968) provided synoptic discussions of the issue.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Ratibida+columnifera&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Ratibida+columnifera&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Updated: 2018-04-27 02:05:52 gmt
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