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Common name (e.g. trout)
Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) >
(Drums or croakers)
Greek, skiaina, skion = a fish, red mullet (Ref.
. More on author:
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref.
). Subtropical; 53°N - 13°N, 19°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: English Channel to Mauritania, occasionally southwards to Senegal. Also throughout the Mediterranean and Black seas. Records from Ghana (Ref.
) and Gabon (Ref.
) are questionable.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref.
: 7 - 8
Occurs in shallow coastal waters mainly on rocky and sandy bottoms, often entering estuaries and more active at night. Also inhabits caves and reefs (Ref.
). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref.
). SCUBA diving observations suggest this to be a very calm fish with remarkable buoyancy control and an ability to move without much apparent effort (Ref.
). Marketed fresh and frozen; in Turkey, otoliths are ground to a powder and used as remedy for urinary tract infections (Ref.
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas
, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref.
Near Threatened (NT)
Threat to humans
; publication :
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Websites from users
Catalog of Fishes
| IGFA World Record |
Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes
| Reef Life Survey |
Tree of Life
) | World Records Freshwater Fishing |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 12.8 - 19.6, mean 15.3 (based on 215 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00776 - 0.00977), b=3.08 (3.05 - 3.11), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.8 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19; tm=3; tmax=21).
Prior r = 0.44, 2 SD range = 0.24 - 0.79, log(r) = -0.82, SD log(r) = 0.29, Based on: 1 M, 2 K, 2 tgen, 1 tmax, records
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Reyes, Rodolfo B.
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Updated: 2018-06-23 17:29:57 gmt