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Semicossyphus pulcher (Ayres, 1854)
CALIFORNIA SHEEPHEAD
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Labridae   Semicossyphus

Semicossyphus pulcher
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Semicossyphus pulcher

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Overview
Main identification features
  • initial phase : pink, white chin
  • terminal phase : dark grey + pink and white bar
  • juvenile: red + white stripe, black spots on fins
Dorsal rays XII, 10; anal rays III,12; pectoral rays 17-19; scales relatively small, 52-57 pored scales in lateral line; 2 pairs of enlarged, curved canines at front of each jaw; rear of upper jaw with prominent canine on each side; large adults develop hump on forehead.

Initial phase brownish red to rose with white chin; terminal phase with black head and white chin, pink to dusky red midsection and black rear portion of body; juveniles reddish orange with whitish midlateral stripe and large black spots on dorsal, anal and pelvic fins, also on caudal fin base.

Size: attains 91 cm.

Inhabits kelp beds and rocky shores.

Depth: 1-90 m.

Monterey, California to Baja and the western and central eastern Gulf of California.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap).
Depth Range Max: 90 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=37; Southern limit=24; Western limit=-122; Eastern limit=-110; Latitudinal range=13; Longitudinal range=12.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 91 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; California province, primarily; Continent only; All species.
Residency: Vagrant.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Ayres, W. O., 1854., Description of new fishes from California. (Minutes of Academy meetings printed in "The Pacific" (a newspaper) shortly after each meeting. New species date to publication in The Pacific. Dates of publication are given in each species account)., The Pacific, 3.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1936., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Heterosomata to Pediculati from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(3):1-56.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gomon, M.F., 1997., Relationships of fishes of the labrid tribe Hypsigenyini., Bull. Mar. Sci., 60:789-871.
  • Gotshall, D.W., 1996., Fishes of Rocas Alijos. In Rocas Alijos. Ed. R. W. Schmieder. Cornell Expeditions., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 347-354.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1880., Notes on a collection of fishes from San Diego, California., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 3:23-34.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Pondella II, D.J., Gintert, B.E., Cobb, J.R., Allen, L.G., 2005., Biogeography of the nearshore rocky-reef fishes at the southern and Baja California islands., Journal of Biogeography, 32:187-201.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Victor, B. C. and Wellington, G. M., 2000., Endemism and the pelagic larval duration of reef fishes in the eastern Pacific Ocean., Marine Ecology Progress Series, 205:241-248.
  • Victor, B. C., 1986., Durtation of the planktonic larval stage of one hundred species of Pacific and Atlantic wrasses (family Labridae)., Marine Biology, 90:317-326.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from CalPhotos
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CalPhotos     Photo Database

 

Number of matches : 15
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Semicossyphus pulcher%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
Sheepshead Wrasse
ID: 0000 0000 1000 0361 [detail]
© 2000 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
Sheepshead Wrasse
(shown with Anthopleura elegantissima, Metridium senile, Crassedoma giganteum, Mytilus californianus )
ID: 0000 0000 0204 0085 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
Sheephead Wrasse
(shown with Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Pterygophora californica, Embiotoca jacksoni, Sebastes mystinus, Calliarthron cheilosporioides )
ID: 0000 0000 0204 0947 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
California Sheephead Wrasse
(shown with Muricea californica )
ID: 0000 0000 0704 0321 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
California Sheephead Wrasse
(shown with Muricea californica )
ID: 0000 0000 0704 0323 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
California Sheephead Wrasse
ID: 0000 0000 0704 0324 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Semicossyphus pulcher
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0704 0048 0059 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Semicossyphus pulcher
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0704 0048 0060 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
Sheephead Wrasse
(shown with Lophogorgia chilensis )
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0485 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
Sheephead Wrasse
ID: 0000 0000 1008 1630 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
Sheephead Wrasse
ID: 0000 0000 1008 1631 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
California Sheephead
ID: 0000 0000 0209 1813 [detail]
© 2009 Douglas Klug

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
California Sheephead
ID: 0000 0000 0209 1814 [detail]
© 2009 Douglas Klug

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
California Sheephead
ID: 0000 0000 0209 1815 [detail]
© 2009 Douglas Klug

Semicossyphus pulcher
Semicossyphus pulcher
California Sheephead
ID: 0000 0000 0209 1816 [detail]
© 2009 Douglas Klug

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Semicossyphus pulcher   (Ayres, 1854)

California sheephead Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
Semicossyphus pulcher   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Semicossyphus pulcher (California sheephead) Semicossyphus pulcher
Female picture by Gotshall, D.W.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Labridae (Wrasses)
Etymology: Semicossyphus: Greek, semi = half + Greek, kossyphos, -ou = a kind of fish (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 55 m (Ref. 9311 ), usually 3 - 30 m (Ref. 9311 ).   Subtropical; 37°N - 22°N, 123°W - 106°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay in California, USA to Guadalupe Island (off northern central Baja California) and Gulf of California.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850 ); max. published weight: 16.0 kg (Ref. 2850 ); max. reported age: 53 years (Ref. 56049 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Prefer rocky bottom, particularly in kelp beds. Often feed on hard-shelled organisms such as sea urchins, mollusks, lobsters and crabs. Spawning occur during the summer and the eggs are pelagic (Ref. 9311 ). Live to more than 50 years of age. Each individual functions first as a female but changes to a male at a length of about 30 cm. Pelagic spawners (Ref. 56049 ). Flesh is white, of good quality and marketed fresh (Ref. 9311 ). The large teeth can cause serious bite wounds.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

A diandric species (Ref. 55367 ). Transforms to a male at length of about 30.1 cm TL and 7.9 years of age (Ref. 55367 ). Forms leks during breeding (Ref. 55367 ). Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Westneat, Mark | Collaborators

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann , 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd),  IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group

CITES (Ref. 94142 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 13513 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | RFE Identification | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.6   ±0.43 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=53; tm=5). Prior r = 0.29, 2 SD range = 0.11 - 0.79, log(r) = -1.24, SD log(r) = 0.5, Based on: 2 tgen, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (55 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

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