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Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758
GILTHEAD SEABREAM
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sparidae   Sparus


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sparus&speciesname=aurata ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Sparus-aurata.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Sparus aurata   Linnaeus , 1758

Gilthead seabream Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Sparus aurata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Sparus aurata (Gilthead seabream) Sparus aurata
Picture by Pillon, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Sparus: Latin, sparus = a fish with a golden head (Ref. 45335 ) .   More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 150 m (Ref. 35388 ), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 54890 ).   Subtropical; 62°N - 15°N, 17°W - 43°E (Ref. 54890 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: British Isles, Strait of Gibraltar to Cape Verde and around the Canary Islands; also in the Mediterranean (Ref. 3688 ). Reported from the Black Sea (Ref. 12781 ). Reports from New Zealand refer to Pagrus auratus (Foster 1801) (Ref. 5755 , 9258 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 33 - 40 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388 ); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781 ); max. published weight: 17.2 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 7253 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-14; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 11 - 12. Body tall, with large black spot on the gill cover. Snout more than twice as long as the eye diameter (Ref. 35388 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in seagrass beds and sandy bottoms as well as in the surf zone commonly to depths of about 30 m, but adults may occur to 150 m depth. A sedentary fish, either solitary or in small aggregations. In spring, they often occur in brackish water coastal lagoons and estuaries. Mainly carnivorous, accessorily herbivorous (Ref. 3688 ). Feed on shellfish, including mussels and oysters. One of the most important fishes in saline and hypersaline aquaculture. Utilized fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9987 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Males become females at about 3 years of age (Ref. 2715 , 28504 ). Protandric hermaphrodite species, maturing first as male (during the first or second year of age) and after the second or third year of age, as female. Spawning happens generally from October to December, with sequenced spawning during the whole period. Incubation lasts about 2 days at 16-1 7°C. Larval stages last about 50 days at 1 7.5°C or about 43 days at 20°C. Egg size 0.9-1.1 mm, larval length at hatching 2.5-3.0 mm. Simultaneous hermaphroditism is suggested for this species (Ref. 103751 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau , 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Aquaculture: production , species profile ; fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
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Vision

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 12.1 - 21, mean 17.8 (based on 258 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01124 - 0.01411), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.7   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28; tmax=11; tm=2-3). Prior r = 0.86, 2 SD range = 0.53 - 1.38, log(r) = -0.15, SD log(r) = 0.24, Based on: 4 M, 10 K, 4 tgen, 2 tmax, records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Papasissi, Christine Modified by Reyes, Rodolfo B. Fish Forum
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