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Paederia foetida Linnaeus
SKUNK VINE
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Paederia foetida
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Paederia foetida

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Skunk vine

Paederia foetida -- Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Paederia foetida

Non-Native to Florida
Origin: Eastern and southern Asia 1
Introduction to Florida: 1897 (agriculture) 2

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paederia foetida paederia foetida paederia foetida paederia foetida paederia foetida paederia foetida paederia foetida

This species appears on the following legally prohibited plant lists

Federal Noxious Weed List Florida Noxious Weed List Florida Prohibited Aquatic Plants List
No Yes No

CATEGORY I on the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's (FLEPPC) 2013 List of Invasive Plant Species

UF-IFAS Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas




Download a page (PDF) from Identification and Biology of Nonnative Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas – Second Edition 1

Download a recognition card (PDF) from Invasive and Non-native Plants You Should Know 3

Control information: Integrated Management of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida (EDIS publication SP 242) 4

Download Natural Area Weeds: Skunkvine (Paederia foetida) (EDIS Publication SS-AGR-80) 5

More Resources

Skunk vine

Management Plan

Introduction

Sometime before 1897 at a USDA Field Station, Paederia foetida , or skunkvine, was introduced from Asia to Hernando County, Florida as a potential fiber crop. Skunkvine was reported as a troublesome weed very early in its introduction, escaping into native areas throughout Florida. It was soon recognized as an economically important invasive weed. In 1993, skunkvine was labeled a Category 1 species on the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council’s List of Invasive Species. In 1999, it was placed on the Florida Noxious Weed List. Currently skunkvine is found in at least 17 counties in central and north central Florida.

This invasive plant did not receive its common name “skunkvine” for smelling like a rose. In fact the species name, foetida , is Latin for “stinky” or “foul smelling”. When the leaves or stems of skunkvine are crushed or broken, a displeasing, foul odor is released. The foul odor of skunkvine is derived from the sulfur compounds in its leaves.

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Description

Skunkvine is a woody vine that does not have thorns. Its vines are able to grow 30 feet in length, climbing up into tree canopies or crawling along the ground. For some unknown reason, the vines constantly twine to the right. The smelly, foul odor released when skunkvine is crushed may a useful characteristic that can aid in identification. Skunkvine leaves vary in size and shape. Generally skunkvine leaf blades have rounded to cordate (heart) shaped bases and acuminate (pointed) tips, with entire (smooth) margins. Leaves may be opposite on the stem. In rare instances, leaves have also been found in whorls of three. Leaves and flowers are on petioles about 2 ½ inches long. Skunk vine flowers are small, light grayish pink or lilac, with red centers. The fruit are small, spherical, shiny brown having 2 black, non-winged seeds. Skunkvine is able to reproduce vegetatively and via seed. Its stems are able to root readily in soil. It is thought that seeds are eaten by frugivorous birds and spread, but has not yet been verified.

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Impacts

Skunkvine is able to survive in a variety of Florida habitats including hardwood, mixed, and pine forests, sandhill, and floodplain forest and marsh. A serious invasive weed, skunkvine is able to displace native vegetation. The dense layer of vegetation created by skunkvine can both damage and kill native vegetation. Climbing vines can engulf and cover trees and shrubs. The weight of the vine mass climbing over vegetation can cause branches or entire trees to break or collapse. Crawling vines can form a dense layer of vegetation, smothering many shrubs and other plants growing in the understory.

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Management

Preventative

Care must be taken when disposing of skunkvine since it is able to regrow when cut back, and produce new plants from stem fragments. Seeds are also able to germinate in brush piles. Prevent the transport of stem fragments and seed to other locations by ensuring machinery is free of seed and stem fragments. Flooded conditions can decrease the vigor of skunkvine; however skunkvine can live in marsh like conditions, able to survive for approximately 190 days under water.

Cultural

Weeds such as skunkvine generally invade open or disturbed areas – following a burn, clearing mowing, etc., so these areas are particularly vulnerable to invasion. Therefore, a healthy ecosystem with good species diversity will help to deter infestation.

Mechanical

Mowing and tillage will provide some measure of control, but are impractical in most situations.

Biological

There is much hope in biological control agents collected in Japan and Nepal by Agricultural Research Service Entomologists Robert Pemberton and Paul Pratt. Chrysomelid leaf beetles and two sawfly species were found feeding on the leaves of skunkvine. A stem gallmaker and a moth in the Sessiidae family were also found to attack skunkvine by causing the formation of galls on vine stems. The flea beetle, Trachyaphthona sordida , has the greatest potential of all of the biological control agents listed to potentially control skunkvine. Flea beetles damage the host root system by feeding on roots and root hairs, leading to reduced uptake of nutrients and water by the host plant.

Chemical

Chemical control is one of the most effective means of control for skunkvine, but single applications will generally not provide complete control. This is due to resprouting from rootstocks or root crowns. A dilution of triclopyr (Garlon 3A at 1 to 2% solution or Garlon 4 at 0.5 to 2% solution) in water can be an effective control for skunkvine when applied as a foliar application. Be sure to include a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% (10 mLs or 2 teaspoons per gallon of spray solution). A 2 to 3% solution of glyphosate (Roundup, etc.) may also be effective. These herbicides are systemic (move throughout plant tissue) so care must be exercised to minimize off-target damage. If skunkvine is growing up into trees or other desirable species, vines should be cut or pulled down to minimize damage to the desirable vegetation. Pulling the vines down without severing them from the root crown will allow the herbicide to move into the root and provide better control. The best time to apply an herbicide is in the spring and summer when skunkvine is actively growing. Be sure to allow adequate time for the plant to regrow from the winter to ensure movement of the herbicide back into the roots. (As plants grow and mature, they begin to move sugars back into the roots).

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References and Useful Links

Flores, A. 2003. Scouring the World for a Skunkvine Control. Agricultural Research Magazine, Vol. 51 No. 10.

Langeland, K. A., R. K. Stocker, and D. M. Brazis. 2000. Natural Area Weeds: Skunkvine ( Paederia foetida ). IFAS Publication SS-AGR-80. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Agronomy Department, University of Florida.

Langeland, K.A. and K. Craddock Burks. 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. IFAS Publication SP 257. University of Florida, Gainesville. 165 pp.

Langeland K.A. and R.K. Stocker. 2001. Control of Non-Native Plants in Natural Areas of Florida. IFAS Publication SP 242. University of Florida, Gainesville. 34pp.

Florida’s Cooperative Extension Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS)

University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Invasive Plants of the Eastern United States

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council


Excerpted from
University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Circular 1529, Invasive Species Management Plans for Florida, 2008 by
Greg MacDonald , Associate Professor Jay Ferrell, Assistant Professor and Extension Weed Specialist
Brent Sellers , Assistant Professor and Extension Weed Specialist
Ken Langeland , Professor and Extension Weed Specialist Agronomy Department, Gainesville and Range Cattle REC, Ona
Tina Duperron-Bond , DPM – Osceola County
Eileen Ketterer-Guest , former Graduate Research Assistant

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More Resources

View more information and pictures about skunk vine , as contained in the Langeland/Burks book, Identification & Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas.

View the herbarium specimen image from the University of Florida Herbarium Digital Imaging Projects.

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Citations

1 . Identification and Biology of Nonnative Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas – Second Edition , by K.A. Langeland, H.M. Cherry, et al. University of Florida-IFAS Publication # SP 257. 2008.

2 . Strangers in Paradise, Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida, Chapter 2: Florida’s Invasion by Nonindigenous Plants: History, Screening, and Regulation, by D.R. Gordon and K.P. Thomas, pp. 21-37. Island Press, Washington, DC, 1997.

3 . Invasive and Non-native Plants You Should Know - Recognition Cards , by A. Richard and V. Ramey. University of Florida-IFAS Publication # SP 431. 2007.

4 . Integrated Management of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida, by K. A. Langeland, J. A. Ferrell, B. Sellers, G. E. MacDonald, and R. K. Stocker. University of Florida-IFAS Publication # SP 242. 2011.

5 . Langeland, K. A., R. K. Stocker, and D. M. Brazis. 2013. Natural Area Weeds: Skunkvine (Paederia foetida). IFAS Publication SS-AGR-80. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Agronomy Department, University of Florida.

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UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
7922 NW 71 Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653
Email: caip-website@ufl.edu
Main Office: (352) 392-9613 | Information Office: (352) 273-3667
© 2014 University of Florida

Updated: 2014-08-27 17:18:25 gmt
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