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Discover Life 9 kinds match in US, VT:
Hylaeus affinis  [popup] female
Hylaeus annulatus  [popup] female
Hylaeus basalis  [popup] female
Hylaeus illinoisensis  [popup] female
Hylaeus leptocephalus  [popup] female
Hylaeus mesillae  [popup] female
Hylaeus modestus  [popup] female
Hylaeus saniculae  [popup] female
Hylaeus verticalis  [popup] female

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REMAINING (number with state)
Abdomen, T1, appearance
 Absolutely or essentially PITLESS (8)
 With a few scattered pits in center, becoming denser towards the sides (8)
 Distinctly PITTED evenly and moderately densely throughout (2)
Body length
 5mm (8)
 7mm (7)
 4mm (6)
 6mm (6)
 8mm (6)
 3mm (2)
 10mm (1)
 9mm (1)
H. affinis, H. illinoisensis, H. modestus - VERY TRICKY set - We currently don t try to separate these species as females, there is too much confusion, you can use the characters below to morpho sort specimens but they may or may not conform to real species
 Unknown - Could be either -Combination of the two species characters, often this can include the presence of absence of a tegula yellow mark when other characters are contraindicative. Usually there are several specimens in any series that cannot be safely ascribed (2)
 H. affinis - Tegula with clear yellow patch AND the slightly smaller tegula-like structure usually partially hidden under the tegula, with a yellow stripe along its edge - Several to many pits on the mesepisternum touching one another - Secondary and more subjective characteristics include the surface of the mesepisternum being slightly rougher and the pits a bit more difficult to detect, the yellow on the pronotal lobe running to the pointed end by the collar, and the yellow parocular marks on the head having their margin nearest the antennae being relatively straight (1)
 H. illinoisensis - Much less common than the other species - We have not seen any specimens as of yet - The literature and workers in the field state that the species should be similar to H. modestus but have the basal half of the front of the front tibia be yellow, the other species should have one quarter or less yellow on the tibia, but we remain dubious of this characters reliability (1)
 H. modestus - Tegula and the structure below it with no yellow patches- None to only a very few pits on the mesepisternum touching one another - Secondary and more subjective characteristics include the surface of the mesepisternum being comparatively smoother, even though still heavily lined and tessellated, and the pits very clear, the yellow on the pronotal lobe not running to the pointed end by the collar but being retracted slightly back, and the yellow parocular marks on the head having their margin nearest the antennae not straight but having a projecting angle somewhere about the level of the top of the base of the antennae, note that in both species the marks in the parocular area often are truncated to only the height of the antennal bases not beyond (1)
H. annulatus vs H. mesillae
 H. annulatus - Tibia completely black or with a small spot of yellow at the base only (1)
 H. mesillae - Fully two-thirds of front side of tibiae YELLOW (1)
H. annulatus vs H. verticalis
 H. annulatus - Base of front tibia usually with a small pale spot - Fovea straight throughout its length (1)
 H. verticalis - Entire front tibia usually black - Fovea bends distinctly toward ocelli at the top (1)
H. annulatus vs. H. affinis, H. modestus, H. illinoisensis
 H. affinis, H. modestus, H. illinoisensis - Yellow on the face USUALLY filling the space between the clypeus and the eye, the edges of the yellow touching both the edge of the eye and the edge of the clypeus - Front tibia with over one third of basal end clearly yellow - Pronotal collar with yellow markings, though it is not uncommon to find specimens with none (3)
 H. annulatus - Yellow on the face restricted usually forming a narrow line of yellow between the clypeus and the eye, but the edges of the yellow touching neither - Front tibia with no or only a smudge of yellow near the base, the remainder all dark colored - Pronotal collar all dark - - NOTE THAT THERE ARE SPECIMENS THAT ARE INTERMEDIATE BETWEEN THESE 2 GROUPS, AT THIS POINT THE SHOULD BE SCORED AS UNKNOWN (1)
H. annulatus, H. mesillae, H. rudbeckiae, H. saniculae - Some difficult to impossible to differentiate!
 H. annulatus - Uncommon to locally regular - Yellow on the front tibia ABSENT OR RESTRICTED to a small dot at the base of the tibia - Averages slightly LARGER than all of the other species, in comparison, measurement of a few specimens indicated head width of 1.6 mm and lengths of 1.5 mm (1)
 H. mesillae - Common - Yellow or orange on the front tibia extensive, occupying HALF TO TWO THIRDS of the front face - Tubercles yellow, center of the clypeus near the rim sometimes with a smudge of yellow - Tegula sometimes with and sometimes without a small yellow mark - Very slightly smaller than H. rudbeckiae - Head width less than 1.4mm and face length 1.2mm or LESS, length measured from the front of the middle ocelli to the rim of the clypeus - Tending to have more subdued and less extensive markings than H. rudbeckiae (1)
 H. saniculae - Rare - Yellow on the front tibia absent or restricted to a small dot at the base of the tibia - NO YELLOW on the tubercles - Facial markings reduced to narrow lines in the paraocular region and these lines not extending beyond the base of the antennae, and, like the much larger H. annulatus and unlike H. mesillae this mark does not fill the region between the clypeus and the compound eye - Smallest of all these species (1)
H. leptocephala vs H. affinis, H. illinoisensis, H. modestus, and H. confluens
 Others - Colored patches on head and thorax are bright yellow to pale yellow - Pits on the mesepisternum of H. affinis, illinoisensis, modestus the same size as those on the scutum, those on H. confluens may be larger but differ in hat they ALL completely overlap one another - Markings in the parocular region can go from the bottom of the antennal sockets to well above the tops of the antennal sockets (3)
 H. leptocephala - Colored patches on head and thorax are ivory - Some pits on mesepisternum clearly larger than those on the scutum and while some may be touching one another there are some spaces between the pits - Markings in the parocular region often but not always do not go beyond the bottom of the antennal sockets (1)
Head AND thorax, color of surface
 1. With CREAMY WHITE to YELLOW markings, otherwise black to black-brown (8)
 2. All DARK, black or black-brown (1)
Head, antennae, length of pedicel vs length of 1st flagella segment
 EQUAL or nearly so (8)
 Pedicel is LONGER than 1st segment (8)
 Pedicel is SHORTER than 1st segment (2)
Head, clypeus, appearance
 LACKING pits, or with few OBSCURE pits that are not visible from most angles (8)
 OBVIOUSLY pitted (6)
Head, clypeus, color
 All DARK (9)
 With YELLOW spot in middle of apical third, otherwise dark (2)
 With CREAMY markings or inflections across rim, otherwise dark (1)
Head, facial fovea, length
 1. SHORT, only extending to FRONT edges of lateral ocelli, or very nearly so (8)
 2. MEDIUM, extending to MIDDLE of lateral ocelli, or very nearly so (6)
Head, marked area between the clypeus and the inner eye, appearance
 LACKING pits, or with few OBSCURE pits that are not visible from most angles (9)
 OBVIOUSLY pitted (4)
Legs, color
 1. With CREAMY WHITE to YELLOW markings on at least one pair of legs, otherwise black to brown (8)
 2. All DARK, black to brown, lacking markings (4)
State or province where bee was collected
 CT (9)
 MA (9)
 ME (9)
 MI (9)
 NJ (9)
 NY (9)
 Ontario (9)
 PA (9)
 RI (9)
 VT (9)
 WI (9)
 DC (8)
 DE (8)
 IL (8)
 IN (8)
 KY (8)
 MD (8)
 NH (8)
 New Brunswick (8)
 Nova Scotia (8)
 OH (8)
 Quebec (8)
 VA (8)
 WV (8)
 NC (7)
 SC (7)
 TN (7)
 GA (6)
 AL (5)
 FL (4)
 MS (4)
 SD (3)
 Newfoundland and Labrador (2)
 Prince Edward Island (2)
Subgenus
 Hylaeus (5)
 Prosopis (3)
 Cephalylaeus (1)
Thorax, pronotal collar, color
 Entirely black (6)
 Yellow or ivory marks present, may be extensive or small (5)
Thorax, propodeum, appearance of propodeal triangle
 WRINKLED only on the broad basal portion of the triangle, triangle apex is PEBBLED (9)
 WRINKLED THROUGHOUT as the skin of a raisin (5)
Thorax, propodeum, presence or absence of a transverse carina which wholly separates the rear face of the propodeum from the lateral faces of the propodeum
 Present, these carina arising from the bottom center of the propodeum and continuing up the propodeum diagonally, clearly delimiting the boundaries of the rear face of the propodeum and the lateral faces of the propodeum as they go, often giving the central region of the propodeum the general shape of an upside-down triangle (8)
 Absent, the rear face of the propodeum and the lateral faces of the propodeum are NOT clearly divided for a significant amount of the height of the vertical portion of the propodeum, often with the rear and lateral faces of the propodeum appearing smoothly rounded into one another (7)
Thorax, propodeum, presence or absence of an oblique carina which divides the thin and usually dorsolateral tips of the rear face of the propodeum from the lower section, these dorsolateral tips usually found to either side of the propodeal triangle
 Absent, the integument appearing evenly rounded throughout its length as you travel from the lower medial portion of the rear face of the propodeum up through the dorsolateral tips of this area such that the entire rear face appears more or less continuous on each side, without any raised lines intervening (8)
 Present, the dorsolateral tips of the rear face of the propodeum are at least weakly divided from the more vertically-inclined area found lower and more centrally, often giving the dorsolateral tips the appearance of small triangles (6)
Thorax, scutum, pit size and the appearance of interpit areas
 Pits MEDIUM sized, deep, and dense, interpit areas EVENLY raised (9)
 Pits SMALL and generally shallow, may be quite dense or only moderately so, interpit areas EVENLY raised (4)
 Pits LARGE, deep, and dense, interpit areas UNEVENLY raised (1)