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Abies concolor (Gordon) Lindl. ex Hildebr.
COLORADO WHITE-FIR
White fir; White balsam; Colorado white fir; Rocky mountain white fir; California white fir; Sierra white fir; Picea concolor; Pinus concolor

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Abies

Abies concolor, cone - female - closed
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies concolor, cone - female - closed

Click on map for details about points.

Links

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma dura @ BPI (1)

Phoma pithya @ BPI (1)

Phoma @ BPI (4)
Alcyoniidae  Rhytisma lineare @ BPI (2)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella pilifera @ BPI (1)
Anthocoridae  Anthocoris antevolens @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Tetraphleps uniformis @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ CSCA_TCN (10); AMNH_PBI (26); NCSU_ENT (1)

Mindarus abietinus @ CSCA_TCN (9); NCSU (4); AMNH_PBI (40)
Atheliaceae  Athelia decipiens @ BPI (1)
Auriculariaceae  Auricularia auricula @ BPI (2)
Botryobasidiaceae  Botryohypochnus isabellinus @ BPI (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria abietis @ BPI (1)

Diplodia thujae @ BPI (1)

Diplodia @ BPI (1)

Macrophoma pinsaponis @ 360336A (1); 360336B (1); 360336C (1)
Braconidae  Ephedrus ( @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Capnodiaceae  Capnodium pini @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Ceratagallia ( @ UCR_ENT (13)

Exitianus exitiosus @ UCR_ENT (1)

Idiocerus ( @ UCR_ENT (4)
Coccidae  Physokermes concolor @ CSCA_TCN (13)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora puteana @ BPI (2)
Corticiaceae  Corticium berkeleyi @ BPI (1)

Corticium corruge @ BPI (3)

Corticium lacteum @ BPI (1)
Cronartiaceae  Peridermium ornamentale @ BPI (4)

Peridermium @ BPI (2)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces deliquescens @ BPI (1)

Guepiniopsis alpina @ BPI (2)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium herbarum @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Dermea @ BPI (1)

Mollisia piceae @ 658292B (1); 658292A (1)

Pezicula livida @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Diaspidiotus coniferarum @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Diaspidiotus ehrhorni @ CSCA_TCN (5)

Stramenaspis kelloggi @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Dothioraceae  Sydowia gregaria @ BPI (1)
Echinodontiaceae  Echinodontium tinctorium @ BPI (11)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma lucidum @ BPI (3)
Helotiaceae  Ascocalyx abietis @ BPI (2)

Cenangium abietis @ BPI (1)

Godronia abieticola @ BPI (1)

Scleroderris abieticola @ BPI (4)

Scleroderris @ BPI (1)
Helvellaceae  Helvella californica @ BPI (1)
Hericiaceae  Hericium coralloides @ BPI (1)

Mucronella aggregata @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus arida @ BPI (15)

Dasyscyphus calyciformis @ BPI (2)

Dasyscyphus ellisiana @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus garrettii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus @ BPI (1)

Lachnellula arida @ BPI (1)
Lachnocladiaceae  Asterostroma cervicolor @ BPI (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Herpotrichia juniperina @ BPI (1)

Herpotrichia nigra @ BPI (10)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (2)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abieti-capraearum @ BPI (14)

Melampsora abietis-capraearum @ BPI (1)

Melampsora americana @ BPI (2)

Melampsora epitea @ BPI (1)

Melampsora humboldtiana @ BPI (2)
Meruliaceae  Merulius armeniacus @ BPI (4)

Merulius confluens @ BPI (1)

Merulius corium @ BPI (4)

Merulius himantioides @ BPI (2)

Merulius pinastri @ BPI (1)

Mycoacia alboviride @ BPI (1)

Mycoacia himantia @ BPI (1)

Phlebia albida @ BPI (1)

Phlebia merismoides @ BPI (4)
Miridae  Atractotomus cooperi @ AMNH_PBI (26)

Atractotomus @ AMNH_PBI (5)

Dacerla mediospinosa @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocoris brevis @ AMNH_ENT (21)

Deraeocoris incertus @ AMNH_ENT (125)

Deraeocoris piceicola @ AMNH_ENT (4)

Deraeocoris picipes @ AMNH_ENT (11)

Deraeocoris @ AMNH_PBI (5)

Dichaetocoris gillespiei @ AMNH_PBI (1); AMNH_ENT (11)

Dichaetocoris piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_ENT (14)

Dichaetocoris sp_n_nr_nevadensis @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichrooscytus abietis @ AMNH_PBI (8); AMNH_ENT (30)

Dichrooscytus longirostris @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichrooscytus @ AMNH_PBI (6)

Ectopiocerus anthracinus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Eurychilopterella pacifica @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Lopidea ute @ AMNH_ENT (7)

Lygus shulli @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Phoenicocoris dissimilis @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Phytocoris calli @ AMNH_ENT (1); AMNH_PBI (2)

Phytocoris fraterculus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris juliae @ AMNH_PBI (10); AMNH_ENT (11)

Phytocoris nigrifrons @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Phytocoris occidentalis @ AMNH_ENT (16)

Phytocoris politus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris sagax @ AMNH_PBI (57); AMNH_ENT (13)

Pilophorus americanus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pilophorus concolor @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_IZC (1)

Pilophorus crassipes @ AMNH_PBI (6)

Pinalitus rostratus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Pinalitus solivagus @ AMNH_ENT (57)

Plagiognathus concoloris @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (7)
Nectriaceae  Fusarium @ BPI (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (1)

Nectria sanguinea @ BPI (1)
Patellariaceae  Patellaria patinelloides @ BPI (2)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora byssoides @ BPI (3)

Peniophora carnosa @ BPI (2)

Peniophora pallidula @ BPI (1)

Peniophora pithya @ BPI (2)

Peniophora propinqua @ BPI (1)

Peniophora subserialis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora subulata @ BPI (1)
Phacidiaceae  Phacidium infestans @ BPI (8)
Piedraiaceae  Trichosporum symbioticum @ BPI (1)
Pleomassariaceae  Stegonsporium cenangioides @ BPI (1)
Pleosporaceae  Epicoccum @ BPI (1)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus ostreatus @ BPI (1)

Pleurotus @ BPI (1)
Pluteaceae  Pluteus cervinus @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes annosus @ BPI (3)

Fomes applanatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes laricis @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (4)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (6)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (1)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (5)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (8)

Polyporus alboluteus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus benzoinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus dryadeus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus leucospongia @ BPI (2)

Polyporus resinosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (2)

Polyporus sulphureus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus volvatus @ BPI (4)

Poria asiatica @ BPI (1)

Poria callosa @ BPI (1)

Poria candidissima @ BPI (2)

Poria ferrugineofusca @ BPI (1)

Poria nigrescens @ BPI (2)

Poria punctata @ BPI (1)

Poria sanguinolenta @ BPI (3)

Poria subacida @ BPI (1)

Poria subvermispora @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (2)

Trametes pini @ BPI (1)
Psathyrellaceae  Ozonium @ BPI (1)
Pseudococcidae  Puto cupressi @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Psyllidae  Trioza bakeri @ UCR_ENT (1)
Pucciniastraceae  Melampsorella caryophyllacearum @ BPI (5)

Melampsorella cerastii @ BPI (26)

Melampsorella elatina @ BPI (6)

Pucciniastrum epilobii @ BPI (2)

Pucciniastrum goeppertianum @ BPI (11)

Pucciniastrum pustulatum @ BPI (20)

Uredinopsis macrosperma @ BPI (2); 040231B (1)

Uredinopsis osmundae @ BPI (7)

Uredinopsis pteridis @ BPI (2)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Rhytismataceae  Hypoderma robustum @ BPI (24)

Hypodermella abietis-concoloris @ BPI (22)

Lirula abietis-concoloris @ 669667B (1); BPI (1); 669667A (1)

Lophodermium decorum @ 651489A (1); BPI (5); 651493A (1); 651493B (1); 651489B (1)

Lophodermium nervisequium @ BPI (2)

Lophodermium piceae @ BPI (2)

Lophodermium pinastri @ BPI (2)

Lophodermium @ BPI (9)
Sarcoscyphaceae  Pithya vulgaris @ BPI (1)
Schizoporaceae  Hyphodontia pallidula @ BPI (4)
Seuratiaceae  Atichia glomerulosa @ BPI (2)
Sistotremataceae  Trechispora vaga @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia arguta @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus amorphus @ BPI (9)

Aleurodiscus cerussatus @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus grantii @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus lividocoeruleus @ BPI (2)

Gloeocystidiellum citrinum @ BPI (1)

Gloeocystidiellum porosum @ BPI (1)

Stereum chailletii @ BPI (2)

Stereum regisporum @ BPI (1)

Stereum rugisporum @ BPI (1)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (4)

Stereum sulcatum @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Pholiota adiposa @ BPI (3)

Pholiota @ BPI (5)
Syrphidae  Milesia fructuosa @ BPI (5)
Thelephoraceae  Tomentella crinalis @ BPI (1)
Thyreocoridae  Corimelaena lateralis @ UCR_ENT (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia candida @ BPI (2)
Valsaceae  Cytospora friesii @ BPI (1)

Cytospora pini @ BPI (1)

Cytospora @ BPI (3)

Valsa abietis @ BPI (1)

Valsa @ 389758B (1)
Venturiaceae  Venturia barbula @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon diathrauston @ BPI (3)

Hypoxylon thouarsianum @ BPI (1)
_  Bothrodiscus pinicola @ BPI (3)

Calyptospora columnaris @ 146974B (1); BPI (8); 146973B (1); 146973A (1); 146974A (1)

Cryptocline abietina @ BPI (1)

Diplozythia @ BPI (13); 389758A (1)

Dothiorellina quickii @ BPI (1)

Lophodermina autumnalis @ BPI (1)

Myxosporium @ BPI (1)

Pellicularia subcoronata @ BPI (2)

Pellicularia vaga @ BPI (2)

Porothelium fimbriatum @ BPI (1)

Rehmiellopsis abietis @ 610004B (1); 610004A (1); BPI (1)

Rehmiellopsis balsameae @ BPI (17)

Rehmiellopsis bohemica @ BPI (6)

Sclerotiopsis piceana @ BPI (2)

Scoleconectria balsamea @ BPI (7)

Scoleconectria cucurbitula @ BPI (2)

Scoleconectria scolecospora @ BPI (1)

Stegopezizella balsameae @ 669660C (1); 669659A (1); 669660B (1); 669663A (1); 669659B (1); BPI (3); 669659C (1); 669663B (1); 669660A (1)

Thyronectria balsamea @ BPI (2)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (6)

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photograph

Drawing of the Badger Pass tree, 63 m tall [Robert Van Pelt] ( Van Pelt 2001 ).

photograph

Current year branchlet. Note stomata on upper surface of leaf [C.J. Earle, 2002.03.06].

photograph

A tree in the pure, N-facing stand S of Wellman Cienega on Mt. San Jacinto, CA. 150.0 cm dbh and about 30 m tall [C.J. Earle, 2004.04.10].

photograph

Sapling 1.4 m tall, Siskiyou Mtn., CA-OR border [C.J. Earle, 2009.07.12].

photograph

A large tree at 8400 feet elevation in Long Valley on Mt. San Jacinto, CA [C.J. Earle, 2002.03.06].

photograph

Cones collected 2002.08.03 from a tree near Spooner Lake, Nevada. (Lake Tahoe Basin) 2,070 m [Jeff Bisbee].

photograph

Foliage with pollen cones [C.J. Earle].

photograph

Bark on an 80 cm diameter tree in Nevada [C.J. Earle, 2001.09.27].

photograph

Tree ca. 10 m tall in the Wasatch Mtn., Utah [C.J. Earle, 2009.10.02].

photograph

Seedling ca. 5 cm tall, established naturally after fire, mountains near Quincy, CA [C.J. Earle, 2002.03.06].

 

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Conservation status

Abies concolor

(Gordon et Glendinning) Hildebrand 1861

Common names

White fir, balsam fir, silver fir, white balsam ( Peattie 1950 ), Colorado white fir ( Silba 1986 ), Rocky Mountain white fir ( Little 1980 ), abeto del Colorado, pino real blanco [Spanish]; for var. lowiana , California white fir, Sierra white fir ( Hunt 1993 ).

Taxonomic notes

Synonymy:

  • Picea concolor Gordon 1858;
  • Pinus concolor (Gordon) Parl. in Candolle 1868;
  • Abies grandis (Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl. var. concolor A. Murray bis 1875.

One variety, Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gordon) Lemmon 1895 (syn.: Picea lowiana Gordon 1862; Abies lowiana (Gordon) A. Murray 1863; A. concolor subsp. lowiana (Gordon) E. Murray 1983).

Abies concolor seems to be one of those unfortunate species (another is Pinus ponderosa ) for which the established taxonomic nomenclature does not appear to fairly represent the genetic diversity of the taxon. Conventionally it is assigned to two groups, concolor and lowiana . Some taxonomists (e.g., Hunt (1993) ) assign each of these groups to its own species; others treat lowiana as a variety or a subspecies; and others (e.g., Farjon 1998 ) draw no distinctions. Hunt (1993) sums up the problem when he calls A. concolor "a western catchall species for firs with green seed cones and with glaucous adaxial leaf surfaces," noting the existence of several discrete, more or less geographically isolated population complexes:

  • A uniform cluster of populations occurs in Colorado and northern New Mexico.
  • A cluster of populations in Utah has shorter leaves and slightly different terpene patterns than the Colorado and northern New Mexico trees ( Wright et al. 1971 , Zavarin et al. 1975 ).
  • A cluster in southern New Mexico and Arizona is chemically similar to the Colorado populations ( Zavarin et al. 1975 ).
  • The southern California populations are morphologically similar to the New Mexico-Arizona trees ( Hamrick and Libby 1972 ).
  • Only Baja California populations have very short, thick leaves and about 18 adaxial stomatal rows.
  • Only Northern California populations have pubescent twigs and notched leaves.
  • Trees in the Sierra Nevada and north Coast Ranges of California (segregated as A. lowiana by Hunt [1993] ) have shorter leaves and fewer stomatal bands than other areas' populations. These trees show introgression with contiguous populations in the Transverse Ranges and the Cascade Range ( Hamrick and Libby 1972 , Zavarin et al. 1975 ).

Based on this information, I have chosen to treat all of these populations within Abies concolor , noting that the existence of several varieties could probably be supported; of these, however, only var. lowiana has been described.

Description

Trees to 60 m tall and 190 cm dbh; crown spirelike, becoming somewhat flat-topped with age. Bark gray, thin, smooth, with age thickening (to 18 cm) and breaking into deep longitudinal furrows, often revealing yellowish inner periderm, appearing "corky." Branches diverging from trunk at right angles, the lower often spreading and drooping in age; twigs mostly opposite, glabrous or with yellowish pubescence. Buds exposed, yellow to tan and either nearly conic (when large) or brown and nearly globose (when small), resinous, apex rounded to pointed; basal scales equilaterally triangular, glabrous, resinous or not, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.5-6 cm × 2-3 mm, mostly 2-ranked, flexible, proximal portion ±straight; cross section flat, sometimes grooved adaxially; odor pungent; abaxial surface glaucous or not, with 4-8 stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface grayish green, glaucous or not, with (5-)7-12(-18) stomatal rows at midleaf, these usually fewer toward leaf apex; apex usually rounded, sometimes acute or notched; resin canals small, near margins and abaxial epidermal layer. Pollen cones at pollination ± red, purple, or ± green. Seed cones cylindric, 7-12 × 3-4.5cm, olive-green, turning yellow-brown, then darker brown, sessile, apex round; scales ca. 2.5-3 × 2.8-3.8 cm, pubescent; bracts included. Seeds 8-12 × 3 mm, body tan or dull brown; wing about twice as long as body, tan or brown with rosy tinge; cotyledons 5-9. 2 n =24" ( Hunt 1993 ).

Hunt (1993) discriminates var. lowiana according to this key:

Adaxial surface at midleaf glaucous, with about (7-)12(-18) rows of stomates; leaves (2-)4-6 cm; leaf apex of lower branches usually rounded; widespread in w US but not in Sierra Nevada.

var.  concolor

Adaxial surface at midleaf not glaucous, with about (5-)7(-9) rows of stomates; leaves 2-4(-6) cm; leaf apex of lower branches weakly notched; Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada, north coastal mountains of California.

var.  lowiana

Distribution and Ecology

USA: Idaho, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona; Mexico: Baja California Norte, Sonora; at 900-3400 m in conifer forests ( Hunt 1993 ). Occurs in both pure and mixed stands ( Little 1980 ). See also Thompson et al. (1999) . Hardy to Zone 4 (cold hardiness limit between -34.3°C and -28.9°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 , variety not specified).

Distribution of Abies concolor var. concolor (blue), A. concolor var. lowiana (red), and A. grandis (orange). Data from USGS (1999) .

Var. lowiana is the dominant shade-tolerant species of the Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest, which is thought by many to be the finest conifer forest area on Earth. Accordingly, this tree grows to very large sizes, exceeded only by the red fir ( A. magnifica ) of Northern California and the noble fir ( A. procera ) of Oregon and Washington. Thanks to over a century of industrious fire suppression, A. lowiana is probably more numerous in these forests than ever before, and has itself become a significant fire hazard as it increases stem densities in the forest and, when dry, is highly flammable.

Big tree

Var. lowiana boasts the Merced Lake Giant, which is near the trail at the east end of Merced Lake in Yosemite National Park, California, and had a dbh of 223 cm and was 66.1 m tall, with a stem volume of 99 m 3 in 1997. Yosemite must be the "sweet spot" for A. lowiana , because it is also home to the second, third, and fourth-largest known specimens, with a fair number of trees over 60 m tall and/or over 200 cm DBH ( Van Pelt 2001 ).

Outside of the Sierra Nevada, the largest known tree is 43 m tall and 184 cm dbh with a crown spread 15 m; it grows in Uinta National Forest, UT ( American Forests 1996 ). The tallest is a tree 49.5 m tall in the Hermosa Creek roadless area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, discovered and measured in August 2014 (Markworth 2014).

Oldest

Ages of >300 years are cited in Burns & Honkala (1990) . The ITRDB tree-ring chronology CA513 spans 1596-1968, 372 years, and is presumably derived from live-tree material.

Dendrochronology

Ethnobotany

Observations

I have to recommend the forests of Baja California Norte, atop the Sierra San Pedro Martír. This is one of the most extraordinary forests of large conifers left in North America, because it has not been subject to fire suppression. Consequently, it remains a large area of open, parklike stands of conifers (mostly A. concolor, Pinus coulteri , P. jeffreyi , and Pinus lambertiana ). It is most readily accessed by a good quality gravel road ascending the west slope of the range to a national astronomical observatory maintained atop the range crest. The road leaves the Transpeninsular Highway 140 km south of Ensenada and (in 1994) is signed "Observatorio". The forest starts around the park entrance, 75 km from the highway, and continues beyond road's end at the observatory, 20 km further on. Camping is superb but water is scarce.

A comparably impressive forest, still containing fairly large trees, can be seen high on Mt. San Jacinto in southern California, e.g. in the vicinity of the aerial tram station.

As noted above, the largest trees are in Yosemite National Park, with the most spectacular examples at the east end of Merced Lake; along the Tioga Pass Road about a mile east of the turnoff for the Tuolumne grove of giant sequoias ( Sequoiadendron giganteum ); near the Badger Pass ski area; and in the Little Yosemite Valley ( Van Pelt 2001 ). Giant sequoia groves are a good place to observe how this species, in the absence of fire, can come to dominate the understory of what was formerly an open, park-like forest.

Remarks

The name " concolor " refers to the fact that both upper and lower needle surfaces are the same color. The winged seeds provide food for songbirds and small mammals; deer eat the foliage, and porcupines the bark ( Little 1980 ).

Citations

Markworth, Matt. 2014.08.14. The Leverett White Fir. www.ents-bbs.org/viewtopic.php?f=70&t=6506#p29675 , accessed 2014.08.17.

See also

Elmore and Janish (1976) .

Farjon (1990) .

Lanner (1983) .

Lanner (1999) .

FEIS database .

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Abies

8. Abies concolor (Gordon & Glendinning) Hildebrand, Verh. Naturhist. Vereines Preuss. Rheinl. Westphalens. 18: 261. 1861.

White fir, Rocky Mountain white fir, pino real blanco

Picea concolor Gordon & Glendinning, Pinetum, 155. 1858

Trees to 40m; trunk to 0.9m diam.; crown spirelike. Bark gray, thin, smooth, with age thickening (to 18cm) and breaking into deep longitudinal furrows, often revealing yellowish inner periderm, appearing "corky." Branches diverging from trunk at right angles, the lower often spreading and drooping in age; twigs mostly opposite, glabrous or with yellowish pubescence. Buds exposed, either yellowish and nearly conic (when large) or brownish and nearly globose (when small), resinous, apex rounded to pointed; basal scales equilaterally triangular, glabrous, not resinous, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.5--6cm ´ 2--3mm, mostly 2-ranked, flexible, proximal portion ±straight; cross section flat, sometimes slightly grooved adaxially; odor pungent, frequently camphorlike; abaxial surface glaucous, with 4--7 stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface grayish green, glaucous, with (7--)12(--18) stomatal rows at midleaf, these usually fewer toward leaf apex; apex usually rounded, sometimes acute or notched; resin canals small, near margins and abaxial epidermal layer. Pollen cones at pollination ± red, purple, or ± green. Seed cones cylindric, 7--12 ´ 3--4.5cm, olive-green, sessile, apex round; scales ca. 2.5--3 ´ 3--3.5cm, pubescent; bracts included. Seeds 8--12 × 3mm, body tan; wing about twice as long as body, tan with rosy tinge; cotyledons 5--7. 2 n =24.

Coniferous forests; 1700--3400m; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Utah; Mexico in Baja California, Sonora.

Abies concolor is a western catchall species for firs with green seed cones and with glaucous adaxial leaf surfaces. Many of these populations have long been isolated geographically and genetically. A geographic cluster of populations in Utah has shorter leaves and slightly different terpene patterns than a similar cluster of populations in Colorado and northern New Mexico (J.W. Wright et al. 1971; E.Zavarin et al. 1975). Another large geographic cluster, in southern New Mexico and Arizona, seems to be strongly linked chemically to Colorado populations (E.Zavarin et al. 1975) and morphologically to southern California populations (J.L. Hamrick and W.J. Libby 1972). Northern California populations with pubescent twigs and notched leaves are unique, as are the Baja California populations with very short, thick leaves and about 18 adaxial stomatal rows. In Los Padres National Forest of coastal southern California and in the Cascades of northern California, apparent introgression with A . lowiana (E.Zavarin et al. 1975; J.L. Hamrick and W.J. Libby 1972) has occurred. Many consider A . lowiana (given specific rank in this treatment) as a synonym of A . concolor or place it in an infraspecific rank under that species.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Hamrick, J.L. and W.J. Libby. 1972. Variation and selection in western U.S. montane species. I. White fir. Silvae Genet. 21: 29--35. Wright, J.W., W.A. Lemmien, and J.N. Bright. 1971. Genetic variation in southern Rocky Mountain white fir. Silvae Genet. 20: 148--150. Zavarin,E., K.Snajberk, and J.Fisher. 1975. Geographic variability of monoterpenes from the cortex of Abies concolor . Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 3: 191--203.

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Updated: 2017-12-11 09:14:28 gmt
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