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Abies concolor (Gordon) Lindl. ex Hildebr.
COLORADO WHITE-FIR
White fir; White balsam; Colorado white fir; Rocky mountain white fir; California white fir; Sierra white fir; Picea concolor; Pinus concolor

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Abies

Abies concolor, cone - female - closed
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies concolor, cone - female - closed

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Links

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Anthocoridae  Anthocoris antevolens @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Tetraphleps uniformis @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (26); NCSU_ENT (1); CSCA_TCN (10)

Mindarus abietinus @ AMNH_PBI (40); NCSU (4); CSCA_TCN (9)
Braconidae  Ephedrus ( @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Cicadellidae  Ceratagallia ( @ UCR_ENT (13)

Exitianus exitiosus @ UCR_ENT (1)

Idiocerus ( @ UCR_ENT (4)
Coccidae  Physokermes concolor @ CSCA_TCN (13)
Diaspididae  Diaspidiotus coniferarum @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Diaspidiotus ehrhorni @ CSCA_TCN (5)

Stramenaspis kelloggi @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Miridae  Atractotomus cooperi @ AMNH_PBI (26)

Atractotomus @ AMNH_PBI (5)

Dacerla mediospinosa @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocoris brevis @ AMNH_ENT (21)

Deraeocoris incertus @ AMNH_ENT (125)

Deraeocoris piceicola @ AMNH_ENT (4)

Deraeocoris picipes @ AMNH_ENT (11)

Deraeocoris @ AMNH_PBI (5)

Dichaetocoris gillespiei @ AMNH_PBI (1); AMNH_ENT (11)

Dichaetocoris piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_ENT (14)

Dichaetocoris sp_n_nr_nevadensis @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichrooscytus abietis @ AMNH_PBI (8); AMNH_ENT (30)

Dichrooscytus longirostris @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichrooscytus @ AMNH_PBI (6)

Ectopiocerus anthracinus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Eurychilopterella pacifica @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Lopidea ute @ AMNH_ENT (7)

Lygus shulli @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Phoenicocoris dissimilis @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Phytocoris calli @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris fraterculus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris juliae @ AMNH_PBI (10); AMNH_ENT (11)

Phytocoris nigrifrons @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Phytocoris occidentalis @ AMNH_ENT (16)

Phytocoris politus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris sagax @ AMNH_PBI (57); AMNH_ENT (13)

Pilophorus americanus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pilophorus concolor @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_IZC (1)

Pilophorus crassipes @ AMNH_PBI (6)

Pinalitus rostratus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Pinalitus solivagus @ AMNH_ENT (57)

Plagiognathus concoloris @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (7)
Pseudococcidae  Puto cupressi @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Psyllidae  Trioza bakeri @ UCR_ENT (1)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Thyreocoridae  Corimelaena lateralis @ UCR_ENT (1)
_  unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (6)

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photograph

Drawing of the Badger Pass tree, 63 m tall [Robert Van Pelt] ( Van Pelt 2001 ).

photograph

Current year branchlet. Note stomata on upper surface of leaf [C.J. Earle, 2002.03.06].

photograph

A tree in the pure, N-facing stand S of Wellman Cienega on Mt. San Jacinto, CA. 150.0 cm dbh and about 30 m tall [C.J. Earle, 2004.04.10].

photograph

Sapling 1.4 m tall, Siskiyou Mtn., CA-OR border [C.J. Earle, 2009.07.12].

photograph

A large tree at 8400 feet elevation in Long Valley on Mt. San Jacinto, CA [C.J. Earle, 2002.03.06].

photograph

Cones collected 2002.08.03 from a tree near Spooner Lake, Nevada. (Lake Tahoe Basin) 2,070 m [Jeff Bisbee].

photograph

Foliage with pollen cones [C.J. Earle].

photograph

Bark on an 80 cm diameter tree in Nevada [C.J. Earle, 2001.09.27].

photograph

Tree ca. 10 m tall in the Wasatch Mtn., Utah [C.J. Earle, 2009.10.02].

photograph

Seedling ca. 5 cm tall, established naturally after fire, mountains near Quincy, CA [C.J. Earle, 2002.03.06].

 

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Conservation status

Abies concolor

(Gordon et Glendinning) Hildebrand 1861

Common names

White fir, balsam fir, silver fir, white balsam ( Peattie 1950 ), Colorado white fir ( Silba 1986 ), Rocky Mountain white fir ( Little 1980 ), abeto del Colorado, pino real blanco [Spanish]; for var. lowiana , California white fir, Sierra white fir ( Hunt 1993 ).

Taxonomic notes

Synonymy:

  • Picea concolor Gordon 1858;
  • Pinus concolor (Gordon) Parl. in Candolle 1868;
  • Abies grandis (Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl. var. concolor A. Murray bis 1875.

One variety, Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gordon) Lemmon 1895 (syn.: Picea lowiana Gordon 1862; Abies lowiana (Gordon) A. Murray 1863; A. concolor subsp. lowiana (Gordon) E. Murray 1983).

Abies concolor seems to be one of those unfortunate species (another is Pinus ponderosa ) for which the established taxonomic nomenclature does not appear to fairly represent the genetic diversity of the taxon. Conventionally it is assigned to two groups, concolor and lowiana . Some taxonomists (e.g., Hunt (1993) ) assign each of these groups to its own species; others treat lowiana as a variety or a subspecies; and others (e.g., Farjon 1998 ) draw no distinctions. Hunt (1993) sums up the problem when he calls A. concolor "a western catchall species for firs with green seed cones and with glaucous adaxial leaf surfaces," noting the existence of several discrete, more or less geographically isolated population complexes:

  • A uniform cluster of populations occurs in Colorado and northern New Mexico.
  • A cluster of populations in Utah has shorter leaves and slightly different terpene patterns than the Colorado and northern New Mexico trees ( Wright et al. 1971 , Zavarin et al. 1975 ).
  • A cluster in southern New Mexico and Arizona is chemically similar to the Colorado populations ( Zavarin et al. 1975 ).
  • The southern California populations are morphologically similar to the New Mexico-Arizona trees ( Hamrick and Libby 1972 ).
  • Only Baja California populations have very short, thick leaves and about 18 adaxial stomatal rows.
  • Only Northern California populations have pubescent twigs and notched leaves.
  • Trees in the Sierra Nevada and north Coast Ranges of California (segregated as A. lowiana by Hunt [1993] ) have shorter leaves and fewer stomatal bands than other areas' populations. These trees show introgression with contiguous populations in the Transverse Ranges and the Cascade Range ( Hamrick and Libby 1972 , Zavarin et al. 1975 ).

Based on this information, I have chosen to treat all of these populations within Abies concolor , noting that the existence of several varieties could probably be supported; of these, however, only var. lowiana has been described.

Description

Trees to 60 m tall and 190 cm dbh; crown spirelike, becoming somewhat flat-topped with age. Bark gray, thin, smooth, with age thickening (to 18 cm) and breaking into deep longitudinal furrows, often revealing yellowish inner periderm, appearing "corky." Branches diverging from trunk at right angles, the lower often spreading and drooping in age; twigs mostly opposite, glabrous or with yellowish pubescence. Buds exposed, yellow to tan and either nearly conic (when large) or brown and nearly globose (when small), resinous, apex rounded to pointed; basal scales equilaterally triangular, glabrous, resinous or not, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.5-6 cm × 2-3 mm, mostly 2-ranked, flexible, proximal portion ±straight; cross section flat, sometimes grooved adaxially; odor pungent; abaxial surface glaucous or not, with 4-8 stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface grayish green, glaucous or not, with (5-)7-12(-18) stomatal rows at midleaf, these usually fewer toward leaf apex; apex usually rounded, sometimes acute or notched; resin canals small, near margins and abaxial epidermal layer. Pollen cones at pollination ± red, purple, or ± green. Seed cones cylindric, 7-12 × 3-4.5cm, olive-green, turning yellow-brown, then darker brown, sessile, apex round; scales ca. 2.5-3 × 2.8-3.8 cm, pubescent; bracts included. Seeds 8-12 × 3 mm, body tan or dull brown; wing about twice as long as body, tan or brown with rosy tinge; cotyledons 5-9. 2 n =24" ( Hunt 1993 ).

Hunt (1993) discriminates var. lowiana according to this key:

Adaxial surface at midleaf glaucous, with about (7-)12(-18) rows of stomates; leaves (2-)4-6 cm; leaf apex of lower branches usually rounded; widespread in w US but not in Sierra Nevada.

var.  concolor

Adaxial surface at midleaf not glaucous, with about (5-)7(-9) rows of stomates; leaves 2-4(-6) cm; leaf apex of lower branches weakly notched; Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada, north coastal mountains of California.

var.  lowiana

Distribution and Ecology

USA: Idaho, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona; Mexico: Baja California Norte, Sonora; at 900-3400 m in conifer forests ( Hunt 1993 ). Occurs in both pure and mixed stands ( Little 1980 ). See also Thompson et al. (1999) . Hardy to Zone 4 (cold hardiness limit between -34.3°C and -28.9°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 , variety not specified).

Distribution of Abies concolor var. concolor (blue), A. concolor var. lowiana (red), and A. grandis (orange). Data from USGS (1999) .

Var. lowiana is the dominant shade-tolerant species of the Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest, which is thought by many to be the finest conifer forest area on Earth. Accordingly, this tree grows to very large sizes, exceeded only by the red fir ( A. magnifica ) of Northern California and the noble fir ( A. procera ) of Oregon and Washington. Thanks to over a century of industrious fire suppression, A. lowiana is probably more numerous in these forests than ever before, and has itself become a significant fire hazard as it increases stem densities in the forest and, when dry, is highly flammable.

Big tree

Var. lowiana boasts the Merced Lake Giant, which is near the trail at the east end of Merced Lake in Yosemite National Park, California, and had a dbh of 223 cm and was 66.1 m tall, with a stem volume of 99 m 3 in 1997. Yosemite must be the "sweet spot" for A. lowiana , because it is also home to the second, third, and fourth-largest known specimens, with a fair number of trees over 60 m tall and/or over 200 cm DBH ( Van Pelt 2001 ).

Outside of the Sierra Nevada, the largest known tree is 43 m tall and 184 cm dbh with a crown spread 15 m; it grows in Uinta National Forest, UT ( American Forests 1996 ). The tallest is a tree 49.5 m tall in the Hermosa Creek roadless area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, discovered and measured in August 2014 (Markworth 2014).

Oldest

Ages of >300 years are cited in Burns & Honkala (1990) . The ITRDB tree-ring chronology CA513 spans 1596-1968, 372 years, and is presumably derived from live-tree material.

Dendrochronology

Ethnobotany

Observations

I have to recommend the forests of Baja California Norte, atop the Sierra San Pedro Martír. This is one of the most extraordinary forests of large conifers left in North America, because it has not been subject to fire suppression. Consequently, it remains a large area of open, parklike stands of conifers (mostly A. concolor, Pinus coulteri , P. jeffreyi , and Pinus lambertiana ). It is most readily accessed by a good quality gravel road ascending the west slope of the range to a national astronomical observatory maintained atop the range crest. The road leaves the Transpeninsular Highway 140 km south of Ensenada and (in 1994) is signed "Observatorio". The forest starts around the park entrance, 75 km from the highway, and continues beyond road's end at the observatory, 20 km further on. Camping is superb but water is scarce.

A comparably impressive forest, still containing fairly large trees, can be seen high on Mt. San Jacinto in southern California, e.g. in the vicinity of the aerial tram station.

As noted above, the largest trees are in Yosemite National Park, with the most spectacular examples at the east end of Merced Lake; along the Tioga Pass Road about a mile east of the turnoff for the Tuolumne grove of giant sequoias ( Sequoiadendron giganteum ); near the Badger Pass ski area; and in the Little Yosemite Valley ( Van Pelt 2001 ). Giant sequoia groves are a good place to observe how this species, in the absence of fire, can come to dominate the understory of what was formerly an open, park-like forest.

Remarks

The name " concolor " refers to the fact that both upper and lower needle surfaces are the same color. The winged seeds provide food for songbirds and small mammals; deer eat the foliage, and porcupines the bark ( Little 1980 ).

Citations

Markworth, Matt. 2014.08.14. The Leverett White Fir. www.ents-bbs.org/viewtopic.php?f=70&t=6506#p29675 , accessed 2014.08.17.

See also

Elmore and Janish (1976) .

Farjon (1990) .

Lanner (1983) .

Lanner (1999) .

FEIS database .

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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.
white fir

Image of Abies concolor

General Information
Symbol: ABCO
Group: Gymnosperm
Family: Pinaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : L48   N
Characteristics
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc) Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
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green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Abies thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, CA, Berkeley, University of California Berkeley Botanical Garden. March 24, 2004. Usage Requirements .

©Mark W. Skinner. United States, CA, Siskiyou Co., Forest Service Road 12N35, 6.2 miles from Forest Service Road 15NO1. August 1, 1984. Usage Requirements .

©Mark W. Skinner. United States, CA, Siskiyou Co., Forest Service Road 12N35, 6.2 miles from Forest Service Road 15NO1. August 1, 1984. Usage Requirements .

Russell D. Daigle. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, CA. 1940. Usage Requirements .

Ray M. Filloon. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, OR, Rogue River National Forest, Lake of the Woods Ranger Station. 1939. Usage Requirements .

Bluford W. Muir. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AZ, Prescott National Forest. 1959. Usage Requirements .

Lloyd F. Ryan. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, WA. 1934. Usage Requirements .

E.S. Shipp. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, CO, Pike National Forest. 1927. Usage Requirements .

E.S. Shipp. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, CO, San Isabel National Forest. 1927. Usage Requirements .

John C. Wicker. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, CA, Plumas National Forest, Ross Canyon. 1964. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, WA. 1914. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Bachelor Butte, Century Drive Highway to. June 22, 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Bachelor Butte, Century Drive Highway to. June 22, 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Bachelor Butte, Century Drive Highway to. June 22, 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Bachelor Butte, Century Drive Highway to. June 22, 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Bachelor Butte, Century Drive Highway to. June 22, 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Bachelor Butte, Century Drive Highway to. June 22, 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Bachelor Butte, Century Drive Highway to. June 22, 2003. Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
ABCOC Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr. var. concolor

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Abies Mill. – fir
Species Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr. – white fir

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Nevada Rocky Mountain white fir Protected as a Cactus, Yucca, or Christmas tree

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (ABCO)
CalPhotos (ABCO)
Flora of North America (ABCO)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ABCO)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ABCOC)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (ABCO)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (ABCO)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (ABCO)
Native Plants Network (ABCO)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (ABCO)
Related Websites
CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (ABCO)
FL-USFS Plant Fact Sheet (ABCO)
Gymnosperm Database (ABCO)
IA-Trees & Shrubs of Iowa State University (ABCO)
IL-UI Plants (ABCO)
MI-Ornamental Plants (Michigan State University Extension) (ABCO)
MO-Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder (ABCO)
NC-Native Plant Fact Sheet (NCSU) (ABCO)
ND-North Dakota Tree Information Center (ABCO)
NM-Medicinal Plants of the Southwest (ABCO)
NM-Medicinal Plants of the Southwest (ABCO)
OH-Plant Dictionary (OSU) (ABCO)
USDA FS Center for Wood Anatomy Research (ABCO)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (ABCO)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (ABCO)
WI-University of Wisconsin Horticulture (ABCO)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Abies

8. Abies concolor (Gordon & Glendinning) Hildebrand, Verh. Naturhist. Vereines Preuss. Rheinl. Westphalens. 18: 261. 1861.

White fir, Rocky Mountain white fir, pino real blanco

Picea concolor Gordon & Glendinning, Pinetum, 155. 1858

Trees to 40m; trunk to 0.9m diam.; crown spirelike. Bark gray, thin, smooth, with age thickening (to 18cm) and breaking into deep longitudinal furrows, often revealing yellowish inner periderm, appearing "corky." Branches diverging from trunk at right angles, the lower often spreading and drooping in age; twigs mostly opposite, glabrous or with yellowish pubescence. Buds exposed, either yellowish and nearly conic (when large) or brownish and nearly globose (when small), resinous, apex rounded to pointed; basal scales equilaterally triangular, glabrous, not resinous, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.5--6cm ´ 2--3mm, mostly 2-ranked, flexible, proximal portion ±straight; cross section flat, sometimes slightly grooved adaxially; odor pungent, frequently camphorlike; abaxial surface glaucous, with 4--7 stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface grayish green, glaucous, with (7--)12(--18) stomatal rows at midleaf, these usually fewer toward leaf apex; apex usually rounded, sometimes acute or notched; resin canals small, near margins and abaxial epidermal layer. Pollen cones at pollination ± red, purple, or ± green. Seed cones cylindric, 7--12 ´ 3--4.5cm, olive-green, sessile, apex round; scales ca. 2.5--3 ´ 3--3.5cm, pubescent; bracts included. Seeds 8--12 × 3mm, body tan; wing about twice as long as body, tan with rosy tinge; cotyledons 5--7. 2 n =24.

Coniferous forests; 1700--3400m; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Utah; Mexico in Baja California, Sonora.

Abies concolor is a western catchall species for firs with green seed cones and with glaucous adaxial leaf surfaces. Many of these populations have long been isolated geographically and genetically. A geographic cluster of populations in Utah has shorter leaves and slightly different terpene patterns than a similar cluster of populations in Colorado and northern New Mexico (J.W. Wright et al. 1971; E.Zavarin et al. 1975). Another large geographic cluster, in southern New Mexico and Arizona, seems to be strongly linked chemically to Colorado populations (E.Zavarin et al. 1975) and morphologically to southern California populations (J.L. Hamrick and W.J. Libby 1972). Northern California populations with pubescent twigs and notched leaves are unique, as are the Baja California populations with very short, thick leaves and about 18 adaxial stomatal rows. In Los Padres National Forest of coastal southern California and in the Cascades of northern California, apparent introgression with A . lowiana (E.Zavarin et al. 1975; J.L. Hamrick and W.J. Libby 1972) has occurred. Many consider A . lowiana (given specific rank in this treatment) as a synonym of A . concolor or place it in an infraspecific rank under that species.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Hamrick, J.L. and W.J. Libby. 1972. Variation and selection in western U.S. montane species. I. White fir. Silvae Genet. 21: 29--35. Wright, J.W., W.A. Lemmien, and J.N. Bright. 1971. Genetic variation in southern Rocky Mountain white fir. Silvae Genet. 20: 148--150. Zavarin,E., K.Snajberk, and J.Fisher. 1975. Geographic variability of monoterpenes from the cortex of Abies concolor . Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 3: 191--203.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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Number of matches : 325
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Abies concolor%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 7335 3182 4656 0100 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
Balsam Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0908 0815 [detail]
© 2008 Thomas Stoughton

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
Balsam Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0908 0816 [detail]
© 2008 Thomas Stoughton

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
Balsam Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0908 0817 [detail]
© 2008 Thomas Stoughton

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0909 1684 [detail]
© 2009 Ryan Gilmore

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0909 2093 [detail]
© 2009 Ryan Gilmore

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0909 2095 [detail]
© 2009 Ryan Gilmore

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 6666 6666 0909 0408 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2009 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
ID: 0000 0000 1009 1476 [detail]
© 2009 Sandra Smith

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
ID: 0000 0000 1009 1477 [detail]
© 2009 Sandra Smith

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1009 2829 [detail]
© 2009 Sandra Smith

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0642 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
(shown with Pinus ponderosa )
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0643 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
(shown with Pinus ponderosa )
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0644 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0645 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0646 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0647 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0648 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0649 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0650 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0210 2250 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
(shown with Pinus ponderosa )
ID: 0000 0000 0210 2251 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0210 2252 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Abies concolor
Abies concolor
White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0310 2239 [detail]
© 2010 Ryan Gilmore

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2016 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BSCIT      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original


CalPhotos     Photo Database

 

Number of matches : 4
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Abies concolor ssp. concolor%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Abies concolor ssp. concolor
Abies concolor ssp. concolor
Rocky Mountain White Fir
ID: 0024 3291 2013 0115 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. concolor
Abies concolor ssp. concolor
Rocky Mountain White Fir
ID: 0024 3291 2013 0113 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. concolor
Abies concolor ssp. concolor
Rocky Mountain White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1031 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Abies concolor ssp. concolor
Abies concolor ssp. concolor
White Fir
ID: 1342 3162 2247 0087 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2007 California Academy of Sciences

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2016 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BSCIT      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original


CalPhotos     Photo Database

 

Number of matches : 20
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Abies concolor ssp. lowiana%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 8076 3101 3973 0042 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 8076 3101 0668 0049 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 7335 3182 4414 0042 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 8076 3101 2933 0018 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0203 0513 [detail]
© 2003 Julie Kierstead Nelson

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 7335 3182 4414 0039 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0203 0512 [detail]
© 2003 Julie Kierstead Nelson

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 8253 3202 4138 0091 [detail]
J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 7335 3182 4414 0038 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0103 0265 [detail]
© 2002 Monty Rickard

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 8253 3202 3492 0078 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 8120 3181 4567 0035 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1205 1012 [detail]
© 2005 Steven Perkins

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1205 1013 [detail]
© 2005 Steven Perkins

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1205 1011 [detail]
© 2005 Steven Perkins

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1205 1010 [detail]
© 2005 Steven Perkins

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1205 1009 [detail]
© 2005 Steven Perkins

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1205 1007 [detail]
© 2005 Steven Perkins

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1205 1008 [detail]
© 2005 Steven Perkins

Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
Abies concolor ssp. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0806 0218 [detail]
© 2006 Dr. Mark S. Brunell

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2016 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BSCIT      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original


CalPhotos     Photo Database

 

Number of matches : 11
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Abies concolor var. lowiana%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0902 0059 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1002 0014 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1002 0017 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0902 0058 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1002 0016 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0902 0056 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1002 0013 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0802 0369 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0902 0057 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
Pacific Silver Fir
ID: 0000 0000 1002 0015 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Abies concolor var. lowiana
Abies concolor var. lowiana
California White Fir
ID: 0000 0000 0902 0061 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2016 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BSCIT      University of California, Berkeley

Updated: 2017-05-23 20:58:04 gmt
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