Line drawing; for full size image go to the Flora of China (
Wu and Raven 1999
in habitat (Offsite link; opens in new window).
in foliage and active pollen and seed cones (Offsite link; opens in new window).
mature seed cones (Offsite link; opens in new window).
(Hayata) Itô 1909
台灣冷杉 [Chinese] (
), Kawakami fir (
), Taiwan fir (
Trees to 16 m tall and 100 cm dbh with single, straight trunk and whorled horizontal branches. Bark smooth and resinous, gray-white, becoming gray-brown and scaly. Branchlets deeply grooved, yellowish-gray to dark brown, with brown pubescence. Buds ovoid, very resinous, brown to reddish, scales obtuse, to 1 mm. in diameter. Leaves linear, flat, 10-15 mm long, dark green above, whitish below, with some stomata on the upper surface near the rounded to notched apex. Pollen cones cylindrical, to 15 mm long. Seed cones oblong to cylindric, 6-7.5 × 3.5-4 cm, maturing purple, bracts hidden (about 1/2 length of seed scales), seed scales fan-shaped, 15-18 mm long. Seeds 7-9 mm long plus a 9 mm wing (
Distribution and Ecology
Taiwan: widespread at 2,800-3,000(-3,950) m elevation in the central ranges, usually forming pure stands (
). Reported occurrences in the area 120°51'E to 121°19'E by 23°13'N to 24°28'N, in
shrub forest and Yushania stands. Found in Sheipa, Yushan, and Taroko National Parks (
). Hardy to Zone 6 (cold hardiness limit between -23.2°C and -17.8°C) (
Bannister and Neuner 2001
National Parks look like good places to see it.
Itô T. 1909.
The species account at
Threatened Conifers of the World
Copyright 2017 The Gymnosperm Database
Edited by Christopher J. Earle
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Last Modified 2017-11-12