The Gymnosperm Database
Line drawing; for full size image go to the Flora of China (
Wu and Raven 1999
in habitat (Offsite link; opens in new window).
in foliage and active pollen and seed cones (Offsite link; opens in new window).
mature seed cones (Offsite link; opens in new window).
(Hayata) Itô 1909
台灣冷杉 [Chinese] (
), Kawakami fir (
), Taiwan fir (
Trees to 16 m tall and 100 cm dbh with single, straight trunk and whorled horizontal branches. Bark smooth and resinous, gray-white, becoming gray-brown and scaly. Branchlets deeply grooved, yellowish-gray to dark brown, with brown pubescence. Buds ovoid, very resinous, brown to reddish, scales obtuse, to 1 mm. in diameter. Leaves linear, flat, 10-15 mm long, dark green above, whitish below, with some stomata on the upper surface near the rounded to notched apex. Pollen cones cylindrical, to 15 mm long. Seed cones oblong to cylindric, 6-7.5 × 3.5-4 cm, maturing purple, bracts hidden (about 1/2 length of seed scales), seed scales fan-shaped, 15-18 mm long. Seeds 7-9 mm long plus a 9 mm wing (
Distribution and Ecology
Taiwan: widespread at 2,800-3,000(-3,950) m elevation in the central ranges, usually forming pure stands (
). Reported occurrences in the area 120°51'E to 121°19'E by 23°13'N to 24°28'N, in
shrub forest and Yushania stands. Found in Sheipa, Yushan, and Taroko National Parks (
). Hardy to Zone 6 (cold hardiness limit between -23.2°C and -17.8°C) (
Bannister and Neuner 2001
National Parks look like good places to see it.
Itô T. 1909.
The species account at
Threatened Conifers of the World
Farjon, Aljos. 1990.
Pinaceae: drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea
. Königstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.
- Provides a detailed account, with illustrations.
Copyright 2018 The Gymnosperm Database
Edited by Christopher J. Earle
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Last Modified 2017-12-29