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Agapostemon femoratus Crawford, 1901
Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Halictidae   Agapostemon
Subgenus: Agapostemon

Agapostemon femoratus FEM mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Agapostemon femoratus FEM mm .x f

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Agapostemon femoratus MALE mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Agapostemon femoratus MALE mm .x f
Agapostemon femoratus, M, Face White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Agapostemon femoratus, M, Face White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax

Agapostemon femoratus, M, Side, White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Agapostemon femoratus, M, Side, White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax
Agapostemon femoratus, M, Face White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Agapostemon femoratus, M, Face White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax

Agapostemon femoratus, M, Side, White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Agapostemon femoratus, M, Side, White Pine Co, NV ---.. ZS PMax
Agapostemon femoratus, Barcode of Life Data Systems
Barcode of Life Data Systems · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, Barcode of Life Data Systems

Agapostemon femoratus, face
Smithsonian, NMNH - Entomology · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, face
Agapostemon femoratus, side
Smithsonian, NMNH - Entomology · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, side

Agapostemon femoratus, top
Smithsonian, NMNH - Entomology · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, top
Agapostemon femoratus, face
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, face

Agapostemon femoratus, side
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, side
Agapostemon femoratus, top
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, top

Agapostemon femoratus, male, hindbasitarsis, mtg
© Kimberly Huntzinger, 2007 · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, male, hindbasitarsis, mtg
Agapostemon femoratus, male, hindfemur, mtg
© Kimberly Huntzinger, 2007 · 1
Agapostemon femoratus, male, hindfemur, mtg
Identification
Extracted from: Roberts, 1973. Bees of Northwester America: AGAPOSTEMON. Agricultural Experimental Station. Oregon State University.

Synonymy: Agapostemon calf f ornicus Crawford, 1901 (females only).

Diagnosis. The male of this species has a bright metallic green head and thorax, and a metasoma banded with black and yellow. The male of A. femoratus may be distinguished from males of other Agapostemon species by its conspicuously swollen hind legs and the large basal ridge and apical groove on the basal segment of the hind tarsus (Fig. 3). The female of A. femoratus is bright metallic green on the head, thorax, and metasoma. It may be distinguished from similarly colored females of other species occurring in the Northwest by its coarsely rugose (instead of punctate) scutum (Fig. 13).

Distribution. This is the most common species of Agapostemon in the Northwest. It occurs as far north as Chilcotin, British Columbia; as far south as San Vicente, Baja California; and as far east as Williston, North Dakota (Fig. 16). In the northern part of its range (Washington) females have been collected from April through October and males from June through October. In California, south of Los Angeles, females have been collected from February through November, and males in March and from May through November. This species also has great altitudinal range, being found from sea level to 10,150 feet (3,094 m) in Mono County, California, and 8,600 feet (2,541 m) in Lake County, Oregon.

Biology. Little is known of the biology of this common species. Bohart (1950) observed both sexes of A. femoratus (reported as A. cockerelli) around fermenting watermelons in Davis, California. He observed copulation between males and females of A. femoratus, an act that took approximately 10 seconds. He also noted that males of A. femoratus frequently attempted to mate with females of Halictus ligatus, H. farinosus, and H. rubicundus.

Linsley (1946) reports that A. femoratus (given as A. cockerelli), "nests very deeply in hard soil, far below the level of cultivation."
Extracted from: Roberts, 1972. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin. Agapostemon femoratus Crawford 1901, Type $ , U.S. National Museum.
Agapostemon calijornicus Crawford 1901. Females only (misidentified).

Sandhouse (1936) and Michener (1951) both considered A. femoratus
synonymous with A. cocl^erelli Crawford (1901), but after examining the
types of both species in Washington, D.C., I concluded that they are spe-
cifically distinct. The females (paratypes) of Agapostemon calijornicus
Crawford (1901) were misdetermined and belong in A. femoratus.

Distribution. Agapostemon femoratus occurs as far north as Chilcotin,
British Columbia, Canada; as far south as San Vicente, Baja California,
Mexico; as far west as the coast of California; and as far east as Williston,
North Dakota. In the northern part of the range (Washington), females
have been collected from April through October and males from June
through October. In California south of Los Angeles, females have been
collected from February through November, and males in March and May
through November. This species is equally abundant at high and low eleva-
tions. A. femoratus has been collected as high as 10,150 ft. (3,094 m) at
Blanco's Corral, Mono Co., California; 10,000 ft. (3,048 m) at Blue Ridge
Fire Lookout, Fremont Co., Wyoming; 9,200 ft. (2,804 m) at Warner
Ranger Station, Grand Co., Utah; and 8,600 ft. (2,541 m) on Hart Mountain,
Lake Co., Oregon. (See map. Fig. 4.)

Diagnosis. The male may be distinguished from many other species by
its conspicuously inflated and toothed hind femora, the large and conspicuous
apical groove on its hind basitarsus, or its nearly hyaline wings; from A.
radiatus by the large basal ridge on its basitarsus; and from A. cocherelli
by its much larger basal ridge on its hind basitarsus and much more in-
flated hind leg (Figs. 162-163). The female may be distinguished from
other species by its metallic green metasomal terga or its coarsely rugose
mesoscutum.

Description

male (Figs. 101-104, 163, 194, 202)

General color of head and mesosoma bright metallic green, metasoma
with black and yellow bands. Head (Figs. 101-104): pubescence white,
usually yellowish on vertex and often pale yellow on interocular area,
denser than in A. radiatus. (1) Labrum as in A. texanus. (2-7) Clypeus,
interocular area, vertex, gena, malar area and mandible as in A. radiatus.
(8) Antenna as in A. radiatus but with underside of flagellum pale amber
to yellowish and with upper side of distal |/ 2 of apical flagellomere pale
amber to yellow. Mesosoma: pubescence white, commonly becoming
yellowish on mesonotum and metanotum. (9) Pronotum as in A. radiatus
but with lateral angle and posterior lobe slightly more angular, and sculp- turing weaker. (10-15) Mesoscutum, mesoscutellum, metanotum, mesepi-
sternum, metepistemum and propodeum as in A. radiatus, but with sculp-
turing slightly shallower. (16-17) Wing and legula as in A. radiatus but
paler. (18) Fore leg as in A. radiatus but lacking brown stripe on tibia.

(19) Middle leg as in A. radiatus but with brown tibial stripe very reduced.

(20) Hind leg (Fig. 163) as in A. radiatus but with trochanter yellow; brown
stripe on tibia reduced; femur, tibia and basitarsus swollen (femur sub-
globose) ; and basitarsus with very large, slightly sinuate basal ridge and
large broad apical groove. Metasoma: (21-22) Terga and sterna as in
A. radiatus but with dark brown or black areas reduced, and with stronger
metallic tints postero-laterally on terga 3-4. (23) Genitalia (Figs. 194, 202)
with gonocoxite partially fused with gonobase; gonostylus with large medial
plate but lacking apical and basal styli ; ventral lobe of gonocoxite moderately
large and with distal fringe of hairs.

female (Figs. 57-58)
General coloration of head, mesosoma and metasoma bright metallic
blue-green to blue. Head (Figs. 57-58): pubescence white, commonly
very pale yellow on vertex. (1) Labrum as in A. texanus. (2-4) Clypeus,
interocular area and vertex as in A. radiatus but with sculpturing slightly
deeper and more coarse. (5) Gena as in A. radiatus. (6) Malar area dark
brown to brown-black; short. (7) Mandible as in A. radiatus but with
pigment creamy and less opaque. (8) Antenna as in A. radiatus but with
flagellum slightly paler on underside. Mesosoma: pubescence white, be-
coming very faintly yellowish on some specimens. (9) Pronotum as in
A. radiatus but with slightly finer sculpturing. (10) Mesoscutum very
coarsely and deeply rugose, becoming coarsely and contiguously punctate
postero-medially. (11-15) Mesoscutellum , metanotum, mesepisternum, me-
tepistemum and propodeum as in A. radiatus but with sculpturing slightly
coarser; dorsal area of propodeum with carinae more commonly anastomos-
ing or rugose. (16) Wing as in A. radiatus. (17) Tegula as in A. radiatus
6 but much paler. (18-20) Fore, middle and hind legs as in A. radiatus.
Metasoma: (21) Terga as in A. radiatus. (22) Sterna as in A. radiatus
but darker and never with metallic tints on sternum 4.


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Apiaceae  Apium sp @ BBSL (1)

Daucus carota @ BBSL (1)
Asteraceae  Arnica cordifolia @ BBSL (2)

Aster foliaceus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Aster sp @ BBSL (2)

Centaurea repens @ BBSL (3)

Chrysothamnus linifolius @ BBSL (2)

Chrysothamnus sp @ BBSL (21)

Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus @ BBSL (13); BBSL__CORNEL (1)

Cirsium sp @ BBSL (1)

Cirsium vulgare @ BBSL (1)

Ericameria nauseosa @ BBSL (9)

Erigeron speciosus @ BBSL (1)

Flaveria campestris @ BBSL (1)

Grindelia sp @ BBSL (1)

Grindelia squarrosa @ BBSL (10); AMNH_BEE (1)

Grindelia @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Gutierrezia sp @ BBSL (2)

Helianthus annuus @ BBSL (1)

Senecio triangularis @ BBSL (1)

Solidago californica @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Viguiera sp @ BBSL (1)
Brassicaceae  Erysimum repandum @ BBSL (2)

Stanleya pinnata @ BBSL (3)

Stanleya sp @ BBSL (1)

Thelypodium laciniatum @ BBSL (3)
Cactaceae  Sclerocactus glaucus @ BBSL (1)

Sclerocactus wrightiae @ BBSL (2)
Capparaceae  Cleome lutea @ BBSL (14)

Cleome serrulata @ BBSL (3)
Chenopodiaceae  Atriplex sp @ BBSL (1)

Beta vulgaris @ BBSL (1)

Salsola tragus @ BBSL (7)
Fabaceae  Astragalus sp @ BBSL (2)

Medicago sativa @ BBSL (21)

Medicago sp @ BBSL (1)

Melilotus alba @ BBSL (7)

Melilotus officinalis @ BBSL (1)

Melilotus sp @ BBSL (3)

Melilotus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Onobrychis viciifolia @ BBSL (1)

Trifolium barnebyi @ BBSL (2)

Trifolium repens @ BBSL (1)
Hydrophyllaceae  Phacelia hastata @ BBSL (2)
Lamiaceae  Monardella sp @ BBSL (1)
Liliaceae  Allium sp @ BBSL (3)

Calochortus nuttallii @ BBSL (1)
Malvaceae  Sphaeralcea ambigua @ BBSL (1)

Sphaeralcea sp @ BBSL (2)
Onagraceae  Calylophus serrulatus @ BBSL (1)

Camissonia claviformis @ BBSL (1)
Polygonaceae  Eriogonum pelinophilum @ BBSL (9)

Eriogonum sp @ BBSL (1)
Rosaceae  Chamaebatiaria sp @ BBSL (1)
Scrophulariaceae  Penstemon washingtonensis @ BBSL (1)
Solanaceae  Solanum elaeagnifolium @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Tamaricaceae  Tamarix gallica @ BBSL (1)

Tamarix sp @ BBSL (8)
Tiliaceae  Tilia sp @ BBSL (1)
_  Asteraceae sp @ BBSL (1)

Asteraceae sp_( @ BBSL (1)

Brassicaceae sp_( @ BBSL (1)

Withheld @ BBSL__ZION (2); BBSL (54); BBSL__PINN (4)

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Updated: 2018-07-15 21:20:33 gmt
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