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Agapostemon texanus Cresson, 1872
Agapostemon texanus subtilior Cockerell, 1898; Agapostemon borealis Crawford, 1901; Agapostemon californicus Crawford, 1901; Halictus (Agapostemon) brachycerus Vachal, 1903; Agapostemon texanus iowensis Cockerell, 1910; Agapostemon proscriptus Cockerell, 1912; Agapostemon joseanus Friese, 1917; Agapostemon sulfuripes Friese, 1917; Agapostemon cyanozonus Cockerell, 1924; Agapostemon proscriptellus Cockerell, 1924; Agapostemon texanus vandykei Cockerell, 1925; Agapostemon californicus psammobius Cockerell, 1937; Agapostemon angelicus idahoensis Michener, 1937; Agapostemon californicus clementinus Cockerell, 1939

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Subgenus: Agapostemon

Agapostemon texanus, female
© Copyright Celeste Ets-Hokin 2013 · 20
Agapostemon texanus, female

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Agapostemon texanus, male
© Copyright Celeste Ets-Hokin 2013 · 15
Agapostemon texanus, male
Agapostemon texanus FEM CFP comp
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Agapostemon texanus FEM CFP comp

Agapostemon texanus MALE mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Agapostemon texanus MALE mm .x f
Agapostemon texanus
Molly Jacobson · 1
Agapostemon texanus

Agapostemon texanus
Molly Jacobson · 1
Agapostemon texanus
Agapostemon texanus, back
Molly Jacobson · 1
Agapostemon texanus, back

Agapostemon texanus, female, greenabd
© Stephanie Kolski and Natalie Allen · 1
Agapostemon texanus, female, greenabd
Agapostemon texanus, female, scutumpits
© Stephanie Kolski and Natalie Allen · 1
Agapostemon texanus, female, scutumpits

Agapostemon texanus, female, side
© Stephanie Kolski and Natalie Allen · 1
Agapostemon texanus, female, side
Agapostemon texanus, female, top
© Stephanie Kolski and Natalie Allen · 1
Agapostemon texanus, female, top

Agapostemon texanus, male, face
© Stephanie Kolski and Natalie Allen · 1
Agapostemon texanus, male, face
Agapostemon texanus, male, side
© Stephanie Kolski and Natalie Allen · 1
Agapostemon texanus, male, side

Agapostemon texanus, male, top
© Stephanie Kolski and Natalie Allen · 1
Agapostemon texanus, male, top
Agapostemon texanus, female, abdomen
© Mary Paul · 1
Agapostemon texanus, female, abdomen
Overview
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.

FEMALE—Length 11 mm.; entire body brilliant blue-green; mandibles testaceous at extreme base, apical half piceous; apical third of clypeus black, rather deeply and coarsely punctate, basal portion green, with punctures much closer but still deep and coarse; supraclypeal area rather closely and coarsely punctate on each side of midline; face above antennae very finely rugoso-punctate, becoming somewhat more coarsely reticulate laterally; cheeks coarsely striate; pubescence of head and thorax pale ochraceous above, becoming more whitish below; scutum and scutellum shining, with scattered, rather sparse, deep punctures between which are very much more minute and close punctures; pleura coarsely reticulate, metapleura more finely striate; dorsal area of propodeum rather coarsely striate, with an obscure, median triangle where the striae are more irregular and fine, lateral faces finely and rather irregularly striate, posterior face with oblique and irregular, rather indefinite striae; coxae more or less greenish, legs otherwise largely piceous, but front and mid femora with small, apical, yellow spots; tegulae yellowish, with a small, inner, greenish spot anteriorly and a more fuscous spot posteriorly; wings hyaline, veins and stigma yellowish; abdominal terga very finely and closely punctate, pubescence of the discs almost entirely whitish, 2-4 with basal, pruinose, whitish bands, beneath which the punctures are relatively sparse but deep and distinct, pubescence of apical tergum fuscous.

MALE—Length 9-10 mm.; head and thorax brilliant blue-green; abdomen piceous, with conspicuous yellow bands; mandibles yellow, with piceous tips; labrum and the narrow apical margin of clypeus yellow, clypeus green basally, more or less blackened between this and thu yellow apical margin, punctures rather coarse but shallow except basally where they are fine and close; supraclypeal area strongly protuberant, finely rugose; face above antennae densely and finely rugose; cheeks finely striate; scape and pedicel black, flagellum brownish-testaceous beneath, blackish above; pubescence of head and thorax ochraceous above, becoming whitish below, with some intermixture of blackish hairs above; scutum dull, densely and finely rugoso-punctate, scutellum more shining, punctures very fine and close but distinct; pleura rather finely reticulate, metapleura more coarsely, irregularly reticulate; dorsal area of propodeum with a rather distinct triangle which is quite coarsely reticulate, more finely rugose on each side, lateral faces finely rugoso-punctate, posterior face irregularly reticulate; tegulae yellowish exteriorly, becoming piceous on inner side, with a greenish anterior spot; wings hyaline, stigma brownish, veins more piceous; coxae more or less greenish, trochanters black, femora and following leg joints yellow, but front femora with posterior face largely piceous, mid femora with a similar, large, piceous blotch and a subapical, smaller one, hind femora with a small basal blotch and a somewhat larger, apical one, these quite slender, with a subapical, ventral tubercle, the tibiae with the posterior side largely piceous; basal abdominal tergum blackish basally and apically, with a rather narrow, median, transverse, yellow stripe which is rather strongly narrowed medially, following terga with basal yellow bands, apical, blackish portion rather strongly suffused with greenish, this more marked laterally, punctures very fine and close throughout, pubescence pale on basal segment and yellow areas of the following segments, becoming somewhat blackened on apical portions of the discs; abdominal sternum 4 swollen apically on each side, this area with a broad, triangular emargination which is largely occupied by the flat posterior border of the plate, 6 flat and unmodified; ventral lobe of gonocoxite broad and expansive, with an apical fringe which is much elongated at extreme sides; gonostyli with a slender apical stylus, tip of which is abruptly flexed, with a median flattened, dorsal, triangular lobe, a slender, ventral projection, and a basal slender finger- like curved projection; penis valves slightly grooved medially, base rather abruptly expanded at this point.

DISTRIBUTION—British Columbia and Washington to Maine, south to Mexico and Georgia; April to November.

FLOWER RECORDS—Aster, Cerasus, Fragaria, Geranium, Prunus, Rubus and Senecio. Robertson (1929) records texanus on the following: Amorpha, Brauneria, Cassia, Cephalanthus, Cirsium, Coreopsis, Helianthus, Lepachys, Petalostemon, Pycnanthemum, Rhus, Verbena and Veronica.

The use of the subspecific designation of this form is made necessary by the occurrence of four other forms in California that are recognized as subspecies of texanus.


Identification
Extracted from: Roberts, 1973. Bees of Northwester America: AGAPOSTEMON. Agricultural Experimental Station. Oregon State University.

Synonymy: Agapostemon texanus subtilior Cockerell, 1898. Agapostemon borealis Crawford, 1901; Agaposteron californicus Crawford, 1901; Halictus (Agapostemon) brachctcerus Vachal, 1903; Agapostemon texanus iowensis Cockerel], 1910; Agapostemon proscriptus Cockerell. 1912; Agapostenion joseanus Friese, 1916; Agpostemon suit uri pes Friese, 1916; Agapostemon cyanozonus Cockerell, 1924: Agapostemon proscriptellus Cockerell, 1924: Agaposteron texanus vandykei. Cockerell, 1925; Agapostemon californicus psammobius Cockerel], 1937; Agapostemon angelicas idahoensis Michener, 1937; Agapostemon californicus clernen- tinus Cockerell, 1937.

Diagnosis. The male of A. texanus has a bright metallic green or blue head and thorax, and a black and yellow banded metasoma with metallic tints on the apical terga. The male of this species may be distinguished from males of A. virescens and A. coloradinus by the metallic tints on its apical metasomal terga and the presence of yellow on its last two visible sterna ( fifth and sixth), from A. melliventris by the dark brown or black on the anterior face of its first metasomal tergum, from A. femoratus by the inconspicuous basal ridge and apical groove on the basal segment of its hind tarsus, and from A. angelicas by the presence of an anterior stripe on its hind tibia or the absence of both anterior and posterior stripes on its hind tibia.

The female of A. texanus has a bright metallic green or blue head, thorax, and metasoma. It ma's be distinguished from the females of most similarly colored species thc' presence of two sizes of punctures on its scuturn. The females of A. texanus cannot be distinguished from the similarly sculptured A. angelicus.

Distribution. The range of A. texanus (Fig. 18) is far greater than that of any other species in the genus. It is found from southern Canada (52 degrees N) to central Costa Rica (10 degrees N) and from Cape Cod, Massachusetts (70 degrees W) to Vancouver Island, Canada (125 degrees W). This species is most abundant near the western coast of the United States and is fairly abundant west of the Mississippi River excepting the and Southwest; it is uncommon in the southwest, east of the Mississippi River, in Mexico, and in Central America. Agapostemon texanus occurs from sea level on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts to about 8,000 feet (2,438 m) in the Sierra Nevada of California. At the northern limits of its range (British Columbia) females of A. texanus have been collected from May through October and males from July through October. In Kansas, females have been collected from April through October and males in April (very rare) and June through October (Fig. 22); in Arizona, females have been collected from February through November and males in July and August; and in Mexico, females' have been collected from February through October and also in December, and males in April and from June through September.

Biology. The biology of this species is relatively well known (Roberts, 1969) and is discussed in the summary of the biology of Agapostemon.
The type of Agapostemon texanus subtilior Cockerell has not been
identified by subsequent revisors and it is possible that Cockerell failed to
designate the type series with appropriate labels. I have designated a female
in the University of Colorado Museum as the neotype. This specimen is
probably from the series described by Cockerell as it bears a label identical
to that of some of the females mentioned by Cockerell, "Pasco, Wash/5
25 96."

I have not been able to examine a type of Agapostemon sulfuripes
Friese, but the description is good and its identity with A. texanus is obvious.

Distribution (Fig. 20). The range is greater than that of any other
species in the genus. It may be found from southern Canada (52° N) to
central Costa Rica (10° N) and from Cape Cod, Massachusetts (70° W)
to Vancouver Island, Canada (125° W). Agapostemon texanus is most
abundant on the western coast of the United States; fairly abundant in the
United States west of the Mississippi River, except for the arid Southwest;
uncommon in the arid Southwest, the United States east of the Mississippi
River, Mexico, and Central America. This species occurs from sea level on
the Adantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts to about 8,000 ft. (2,438 m) in the
Sierra Nevada of California. At the northern limits of its range (British
Columbia) females of A. texanus have been collected from May through
September and males from July through October; in Kansas females (in-
cluding those of A. angelicus) have been collected from April through
November and males in April (very rare) and from June through October;
in Arizona females (including those of A. angelicus) have been collected
from February through November and males in July and August; and in
Mexico females (including those of A. angelicus) have been collected from
February through October and in December, and males from April and
June through September.

From its geographic distribution it appears that A. texanus is able to live
under a wide variety of climatic conditions and in 70 of the 116 plant com-
munities (see Appendix A) occurring in the United States (Kiichler, 1964).
Considering the lack of apparent climatic, biotic or edaphic factors correlated
with its distribution, I find the distribution of A. texanus inexplicable. In a
widespread and heterogeneous as this (cf. discussion of variation),
> which limit its distribution in one area may be relatively unimportant
in another.

The male may be distinguished from males of many other
5 toothed hind femora, the apical stylus on its gonostylus, and the lack of a low medial ridge on the apical l / 2 of its last visible sternum;
from A. splendens by the lack of a grooved basal ridge on its hind basitarsus;
and from A. angelicas by the apical stylus of its gonostylus (Figs. 180-181)
and usually by the presence of a black stripe anteriorly on its hind tibia (if
absent, then also lacking black stripe on posterior surface of hind tibia).
The female may be distinguished from most other species by its bright
metallic green to blue metasomal terga, its almost hyaline wings, and its
two distinct sizes of mesoscutal punctures. I have not distinguished the
females of A. texanus from those of A. angelicits except where they occur
well outside the distribution of A. angelicas males (Fig. 20).

Variation. The amount of variation is reflected by the length of the
synonymy, which consists of 15 names. Although specimens from different
parts of the range differ in color, pattern and sculpturing, the male genitalia
are all alike and there are intergrades among the other characters. There-
fore, I conclude that the described variants all belong to one species. A.
angelicas is superficially more similar to the typical form of A. texanus than
is A. texanus vandy\ei. However, I regard A. angelicits as a separate species
because: the male genitalia — which provide excellent specific characters in
many other species of Agapostemon — are different from those of A. texanus
(Figs. 180-181); there are no intergrades between the two species with
regard to certain color patterns; the two are sympatric.

The variation within A. texanus falls into three major categories. These
are the area and density of melanic pigmentation, the amount and hue of
structural (metallic) coloration, and the sculpturing.

Melanic pigmentation is best seen in males, as it is obscured or replaced
by the structural colors predominant in females. The melanic pigmentation
varies in density from pale amber to brown-black, and varies both within
and among localities. It was expected that there might be concordance of
variation in the size of melanic maculations on the appendages. However,
specimens from San Clemente Island, California have no yellow (0%) on
either the fore coxa or lower l / 2 of the scape; whereas specimens from Jalisco,
Mexico, have little (10%) yellow on the fore coxa but much (95%) on the
lower Y z of the scape. Nor could precipitation, temperature or other ecolog-
ical factors account for the similarity between, for example, populations
from New Hampshire and San Clemente Island, California (underside of
scape 100% black) or between Saskatchewan, Canada, and Missouri (under-
side of scape 100% yellow).

There are considerable differences of color pattern among various popula-
tions (Table 1). However, they can all be explained in terms of an increase
or decrease in the amount (area) of melanic pigmentation. For example,
although the black stripe on the posterior surface of the hind femur is
absent in some populations and present in others, it can be shown that this stripe is absent only in those populations in which the anterior stripe is
reduced or absent, and that the reverse is never true. Every specimen in
which the posterior hind femoral stripe is present and the anterior stripe
absent proves, upon examination of the genitalia, to be A. angelicas rather
than A. texanas. Therefore, although differences of color pattern do exist
among individuals and populations, they are a result of the amount of
melanic pigmentation.

One of the most obvious variables is the hue of the structural (metallic)
coloration. It is usually pure green, but in some populations is yellowish or
blue. The extremes of the yellowish and blue forms are so distinctive that
they may be distinguished at a distance of several feet. The yellowish form
(A. vandy\ei) occurs in the Sierra Nevada of California and in the Coast
Ranges north of San Francisco. Limited to montane areas, it is not found
along the coast or in the Central Valley. This form has strong brassy yellow
overtones which are most striking in the Sierra Nevada south of Yosemite
National Park and in the southern portion of the Coast Ranges north of
San Francisco. The yellow cast becomes less pronounced further north to
the point where it is replaced by the pure green of A. texanus texanus along
the California-Oregon border.

The blue form of A. texanus (A. californicus) is found on the coast of
California south of Cape Mendocino, in the Central Valley, and on the
islands off the coast of southern California. It occurs only at low elevations
and is not sympatric with the yellow form. It is most easily recognized by
the bluish (rather than green) cast of the metallic coloration, which is
particularly pronounced in the mesoscutum of males. This hue is most
intense in the southern portion of the range, most notably on San Clemente
Island (A. calijornicus clementinus), where it is a very dark violaceous blue.
However, it becomes greener further north to the point where, along the
California-Oregon border, it is replaced by the pure green of A. texanus
texanus.

It is interesting that there do not seem to be intermediates between the
yellow and blue forms in the southern portions of their ranges. It would be
logical to regard them as separate taxa were it not for the green intermediate
forms to the north. Although the origins of this geographic distribution of
color forms are doubtless environmental, the populations must be relatively
homogeneous genetically for this character because annual or local environ-
mental fluctuations have no apparent effect upon the colors of the popula-
tions.

Variation in sculpturing is best seen on the mesosoma of females. The
punctures on the mesoscutum range from deep and contiguous (Fig. 24) to
relatively shallow and far apart (Fig. 23). The former condition produces
a rough and dull appearance, the latter a relatively smooth and shiny surface, There are slight geographical variations in this character (Table 1), but
the variation within a given locality is considerable. Although the rugae on
the propodeum all follow the same general pattern, they vary considerably
in number, coarseness, angle of divergence and number of interconnections
(Figs. 25-26). This variability is so great within a locality that it is im-
possible to discern a significant difference among localities. In fact it is
so great as to invalidate the contention of Sandhouse (1936) and her pre-
decessors that A. texanus females may be distinguished from those of A.
angelicits by propodeal sculpturing.

Description
male (Figs. 75-76, 165, 180, 201)

General coloration of head and mesosoma bright metallic green to blue,
metasoma with black and yellow bands. Head (Figs. 75-76): (1) Labritm
opaque lemon yellow with transparent pale amber margins (distal % amber
on specimens from San Clemente I., California). Nearly as wide as long;
distal margin rounded; and large transverse ridge on basal l / 3 with very
slight medial depression. Punctures on crown of basal ridge shallow and
separated by 2-3 times their diameters; submarginal punctures large and
shallow medially, becoming smaller laterally and disappearing just anterior
to basal ridge. Pubescence on crown of basal ridge minute, simple and erect;
simple hairs in submarginal punctures about three times as long as puncture
is wide and deflected distally. (2) Clypeus with coarse punctures contiguous
at upper margin, becoming subcontiguous at lower margin and becoming
smaller and shallower laterally; pubescence white, dense and about 2/5
length of clypeus medially, decreasing to 1/5 length of clypeus and loosely
appressed at lateral margin. (3) Interocular area with small, deep, contiguous
punctures below ocelli, becoming coarser laterally and moderately deeply
rugulose above antennal sockets and shallowly rugulose ventro-laterally;
supraclypeal protuberance coarsely punctate to shallowly rugose; pubescence
white, erect, l / 2 as long as scape medially, becoming l / 4 as long laterally.
(4) Vertex with small, deep, contiguous punctures anteriorly, becoming
shallower laterally; weakly rugose posteriorly, becoming weakly rugulose to
weakly punctate between ocelli; pubescence white, % as long as distance
between lateral ocelli medially, decreasing to l / 2 as long as distance between
lateral ocelli laterally. (5) Gena with hypostomal carina about 2.5 times as
long as width of proboscidial fossa; short parallel carinulae extending
postero-dorsally from antero-ventral margin; pubescence white, ranging in
length from /5 as long as hypostomal carina centrally to 1/5 as long
laterally and dorsally. (6) Malar area yellow to amber; very short; pubes-
cence short, white, appressed. (7) Mandible opaque lemon yellow with
distal y 3 ferruginous; punctures few, shallow and scattered thinly over basal Y 2 ; pubescence scant with small patch of short white hairs on base of man-
dible. Row of approximately eight evenly spaced amber hairs along lower
margin of basal 2 / 3 of mandible, with proximal hairs nearly twice as long
as distal hairs. (8) Antenna brown to brown-black above with pale amber
or yellow on apical l / 2 of apical flagellomere; flagellum pale amber below;
scape and pedicel yellow to black below (see remarks on Variation).
Mesosoma: pubescence white, becoming creamy to golden on mesono-
tum and metanotum; metallic coloration brassy green to blue. (9) Pronotum
with lateral angle and posterior lobe slightly angular. Weak carina extend-
ing postero-ventrally from lateral angle; low carina extending postero-
ventrally from center of lateral portion; weak horizontal carinulae near
postero-lateral margin; long pubescence above lateral angle and posterior
lobe and very fine white tomentum on postero-lateral area. (10) Meso-
scutum with numerous small, dense, deep, contiguous punctures becoming
rugose anterolaterally. (11) MesoscuteUum with punctation like that of
mesoscutum but shallower, less dense, and often with shiny lateral area;
pubescence like that of mesoscutum. (12) Metanotum coarsely punctate to
rugulose; pubescence like that of mesoscutum. (13) Mesepistermtm coarsely
rugose anteriorly and only slightly less coarsely rugose posteriorly; pubes-
cence long. (14) Metepisterniim coarsely rugose, sometimes with horizontal
rugae more prominent than others; pubescence long. (15) Propodeum with
propodeal carina moderately weak to weak; propodeal shield moderately
coarsely to moderately finely rugose; dorsal area moderately coarsely rugose
medially and anteriorly, becoming finely rugose to finely rugulose postero-
laterally; lateral area moderately finely rugose posteriorly, becoming punctate
anteriorly. Pubescence very short dorsally, moderately long laterally and
posteriorly. (16) Wing nearly hyaline, with pterostigma and all veins but
radius amber; radius dark brown. (17) Tegula dark to very pale trans-
parent amber, with large pale yellow lunulate maculation parallel to — but
separated from — anterior margin, with metallic tints on basal margin, and
with short pale yellow band on posterior margin. (18) Fore leg with coxa
metallic green; trochanter yellow to brown-black; femur entirely yellow
to yellow with dark brown on all but distal portion of posterior surface;
tibia entirely yellow to yellow with dark brown on all but distal l / 3 of
ventral surface and short brown stripe sub-basally on dorsal surface; tarsus
yellow. Pubescence white, becoming pale amber on tarsus. (19) Middle leg
with coxa brown-black tinted with metallic green; trochanter yellow with
brown spot basally on posterior surface to entirely brown-black; femur en-
tirely yellow to yellow with brown-black stripe broadest basally and narrowest
distally extending from base to apex on posterior surface; tibia yellow with
dark brown sub-basal stripe on basal l / z of dorsal surface to yellow with
brown-black sub-basal stripe on basal % of dorsal surface and brown-black stripe entire length of ventral surface; tarsus yellow. Pubescence similar to
that on fore leg. (20) Hind leg (Fig. 165) with coxa bright metallic green;
trochanter brown-black with metallic tints to yellow with dark brown
basally; femur yellow with large brown apical spot postero-dorsally and
sometimes with basal brown spot posteriorly; tibia yellow with small brown-
black area at base and usually with apical streak of brown to brown-black
on posterior surface and sub-basal streak of brown to brown-black antero-
dorsally (posterior streak or both posterior and antero-dorsal streak may be
absent) ; tarsus yellow. Basal ridge on basitarsus low and inconspicuous.
Pubescence white, usually pale amber posteriorly on tarsus. Metasoma:
(21) Terga black with yellow bands on basal halves of terga 2-5 and centrally
on tergum 1; ventro-lateral margins of terga 1-6 transparent amber; metallic
tints apically on terga 4-5, pygidium amber to yellow. Pubescence dorsally
on terga 1-4 very short and inconspicuous, pale on yellow band, dark on
brown-black bands; moderately long and white anteriorly on tergum 1,
laterally on terga 3-5, and dorsally and laterally on terga 5-7. (22) Sterna
yellow with brown band apically on sterna 2-5 (narrow on sternum 2 but
occupying most of sternum 5) ; sternum 6 brown to yellow with brown band
basally; sternum 1 yellow to amber, with metallic tints basally; sternum 4
with low, transverse ridge reaching distal margin laterally and usually with
faint metallic spot medially. Moderately long, scattered, white hairs on ex-
posed areas and with 2-4 large stout bristles disto-laterally on sternum 4.
(23) Genitalia (Figs. 180, 201) with apical stylus, medial plate and basal
stylus present; ventral lobe moderately large, fringed with short hairs
distally.

female (Figs. 21-26, 67-68)

General coloration bright metallic green to blue or brassy. Head (Figs.
21-22, 67-68). (1) Labrum dark amber to ferruginous. Basal ridge prom-
inent, proximal face sloping gently toward proximal margin, distal face
sharply declivous, and apex of ridge with deep punctures; distal portion
narrow, abruptly rounded at apex; conspicuous median keel on antero-distal
portion, continued basally almost to basal ridge; anterior margin of keel
flattened and slightly flared laterally; single row of dark amber, wide, flat,
stiff bristles curving anteriorly at their apices and forming fimbria on antero-
lateral margins of labrum. (2) Clypeus brown-black below, becoming green
above; large, scattered, deep punctures below, becoming slightly smaller and
subcontiguous above; pubescence creamy to amber with single row of amber
bristles curving downwards from just above lower margin of clypeus. (3)
Interocular area with deep, moderate sized, contiguous punctures below
ocelli becoming rugose laterally and below; supraclypeal protuberance with
moderate sized, scattered punctures between short transverse rugae. (4) Vertex with deep, small to moderate sized, contiguous punctures anteriorly,
becoming smaller and shallower laterally; rugulose posteriorly and between
ocelli; pubescence creamy to amber. (5) Genu (Fig. 22) with regular,
moderately coarse carinae extending postero-dorsally from antero-ventral
margin; pubescence white and long. (6) Malar area amber to brown-black;
very short; pubescence very short, sparse, white and tomentose. (7) Mandible
yellow to pale amber with apical V^-Yz ferruginous; moderately long, white,
scattered pubescence at base and single row of moderately long amber pu-
bescence on lower margin. (S) Antenna dark brown to brown-black with
underside of flagellum amber. Mesosoma: pubescence white, becoming
creamy to amber on mesonotum and metanotum. (9) Pronotum as in $
but with lateral angle and posterior lobe slightly more angular. (10)
Mesoscutum (Figs. 23-24) with medium sized, moderately deep punctures
separated by 2-3 times their diameters and interspersed with more numerous
smaller and shallower contiguous to subcontiguous punctures; rugose antero-
laterally (see discussion of Variation); pubescence moderately long. (11)
Mesoscutellitm with punctation like that of mesoscutum but small punctures
smaller, more numerous and shallower; often shinier than mesoscutum;
pubescence moderately long. (12) Metanotum finely and shallowly rugulose;
pubescence moderately long. (13) Me sepi sternum with coarse rugae an-
teriorly, becoming slightly less coarse posteriorly; pubescence moderately
long. (14) Metepistemum with coarse, interconnected, horizontal carinae;
pubescence moderately long. (15) Propodeum (Figs. 25-26) with prominent
propodeal carina; propodeal shield weakly rugose with stronger rugae ex-
tending dorso-laterally from medial groove; dorsal area with weak, irregular,
interconnected rugae extending posteriorly from anterior margin, becoming
moderately finely rugose postero-laterally; lateral area with contiguous,
horizontal carinulae and scattered small punctures; pubescence short dorsally,
moderately long laterally and posteriorly. (16) Wing as in $ . (17) Tegula
as in i but slightly darker amber. (18) Fore leg with coxa dark brown to
brown-black and tinted with metallic green; trochanter dark brown to
brown-black, often with narrow, inconspicuous, yellow band apically on
posterior surface; femur brown to brown-black, with apical yellow band;
tibia brown-black, with amber to yellow anteriorly; tarsus brown-black to
pale amber; pubescence creamy on coxa, becoming amber on tarsus. (19)
Middle leg similar in color to fore leg but with pubescence fuliginous dor-
sally on distal portion of tibia and amber ventrally on femur and tibia.
(20) Hind leg with coxa dark brown to brown-black with strong metallic
green tints dorsally; trochanter brown to brown-black; femur, tibia and
tarsus brown-black to pale amber; pubescence creamy on coxa, trochanter
and femur, becoming amber on tibia and tarsus and dark fuliginous to
black on dorsal surface of tibia (darkest basally). Metasoma: (21) Terga metallic green to blue or brassy; white bands of pruinose pubescence cover-
ing basal l / $ of terga 1-4 and white, very short, simple hairs covering dorsal
% of terga 1-4; terga 5-6 with long, dark brown to black pubescence. (22)
Sterna brown to brown-black with metallic tints basally on sternum 1;
long, creamy, scattered hairs on exposed areas.


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Asteraceae  Achillea millefolium @ UCMS_ENT (2)

Arnica sp @ BBSL (1)

Aster simplex @ AMNH_BEE (11)

Aster sp @ BBSL (2)

Baccharis salicina @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Baileya multiradiata @ BBSL (1)

Bidens ferulifolia @ I_CEH (1)

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Chrysothamnus sp @ BBSL (5)

Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus @ BBSL (5)

Cichorium intybus @ PN- (5); MLSB__N16- (2)

Cirsium sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Cirsium vulgare @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Cirsium @ RMBL_ENT (1)

Conyza canadensis @ PN- (1)

Coreopsis sp @ BBSL (1)

Ericameria nauseosa @ BBSL (6)

Erigeron annuus @ MLSB__N16- (1)

Erigeron leiomerus @ RMBL_ENT (1)

Eupatorium purpureum @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Flaveria campestris @ BBSL (1)

Grindelia sp @ BBSL (4)

Grindelia squarrosa @ BBSL (12)

Gutierrezia @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Helenium @ I_CEH (1)

Helianthus annuus @ BBSL (1)

Helianthus anomalus @ BBSL (2)

Helianthus sp @ BBSL (5)

Heterotheca inuloides @ BBSL (1)

Heterotheca subaxillaris @ BBSL (1)

Hieracium sp @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Leucanthemum vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (4)

Machaeranthera bigelovii @ BBSL (3)

Machaeranthera sp @ BBSL (2)

Madia elegans @ BBSL (1)

Ratibida columnifera @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Senecio sp @ BBSL__KWC (1)

Solidago tenuifolia @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Taraxacum campylodes @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Vernonia noveboracensis @ BBSL (1)
Brassicaceae  Barbarea vulgaris @ UCMS_ENT (35)

Erysimum repandum @ BBSL (1)

Raphanus raphanistrum @ UCMS_ENT (2)
Cactaceae  Sclerocactus wrightiae @ BBSL (27)
Capparaceae  Cleome serrulata @ BBSL__BYU (1)

Cleome sp @ BBSL (3)
Chenopodiaceae  Beta vulgaris @ BBSL (2)
Convolvulaceae  Convolvulus sepium @ UCMS_ENT (2)

Convolvulus @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Ericaceae  Kalmia latifolia @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Euphorbiaceae  Poinsettia heterophylla @ BBSL (1)
Fabaceae  Astragalus racemosus @ BBSL (1)

Lathyrus japonicus @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Medicago sativa @ BBSL (2)

Prosopis glandulosa @ BBSL (1)

Prosopis sp @ BBSL (1)

Tephrosia virginiana @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Trifolium hybridum @ RMBL_ENT (1)

Trifolium repens @ UCMS_ENT (1); PN- (1)
Hydrophyllaceae  Phacelia sp @ BBSL (1)
J. rykken  1029 @ JRYB__SHEN (2)

1031 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

1037 @ JRYB__SHEN (4)

672 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

913 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
K. kingsley  1059 @ JRYB__SHEN (3)

1063 @ JRYB__SHEN (10)

1064 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Lamiaceae  Blephilia ciliata @ MLSB__N16- (1)

Salvia carduacea @ BBSL (5)

Teucrium canadense @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Malvaceae  Sphaeralcea sp @ BBSL (5)
Nartheciaceae  Aletris farinosa @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Papaveraceae  Glaucium flavum @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Plantaginaceae  Plantago lanceolata @ MLSB__N16- (2)
Plumbaginaceae  Limonium carolinianum @ UCMS_ENT (5)
Polygonaceae  Eriogonum sp @ BBSL (1)
Rosaceae  Fragaria virginiana @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Horkelia sp @ BBSL (1)

Malus pumila @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Petrophyton caespitosum @ BBSL (2)

Rosa rugosa @ UCMS_ENT (5)

Rubus sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Rubus spp @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Rubus @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Verbenaceae  Verbena sp @ BBSL (1)
Zygophyllaceae  Larrea tridentata @ BBSL (20)
_  M Spring @ PN- (1)

Withheld @ BBSL__YOSE (11); BBSL (284); BBSL__ZION (187)

blueberry @ NLA (1)

caneberry @ NLA (1)

cucurbit @ NLA (2)

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Following served from Image from Cedar Creek Natural History Area
   
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Following modified from CalPhotos
   
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Agapostemon+texanus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Agapostemon+texanus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 501 Protocol scheme 'https' is not supported (LWP::Protocol::https not installed) https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Agapostemon+texanus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

Updated: 2017-12-13 11:33:18 gmt
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