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Agaricus bitorquis (Quél. ) Sacc.
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Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis

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Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis
Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis

Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis
Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis

Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis
Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis

Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis
Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis

Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis
Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis

Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 3
Agaricus bitorquis
Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 1
Agaricus bitorquis

Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 1
Agaricus bitorquis
Agaricus bitorquis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2117 · 1
Agaricus bitorquis

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First person to use this name on MO: Nathan Wilson
Editors: Alan Rockefeller , Jason Hollinger , Erlon

Observations of:

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This Taxon, other names (0)

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Other Taxa, this name proposed (19)

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Nomenclature:

Rank: Species

Status: Accepted

Name: Agaricus bitorquis

Author: (Quél.) Sacc.

Citation: Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 998 (1887)

Deprecated Synonyms: Agaricus rodmani , Agaricus edulis , Agaricus bitorquis var. validus (F.H. Møller) Bon & Cappelli , Agaricus campestris var. edulis Vittad. , Agaricus edulis var. validus (F.H. Møller) F.H. Møller , Agaricus rodmanii Peck , Chitonia pecquinii Boud. , Fungus bitorquis (Quél.) Kuntze , Fungus rodmanii (Peck) Kuntze , Pratella bitorquis (Quél.) Quél. , Pratella peronata (Roze) Quél. , Psalliota bitorquis Quél. , Psalliota edulis (Vittad.) Jul. Schäff. & F.H. Møller , Psalliota edulis var. valida F.H. Møller , Psalliota peronata Roze , Psalliota rodmanii (Peck) Kauffman

Misspellings: Agaricus Bitorquis

Classification:

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Agaricaceae

Genus: Agaricus

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Lifeform:

Propagate to Subtaxa

Brief Description: See More | Edit

Agaricus bitorquis

Common Names: The Sidewalk Mushroom, Torq, The Firm Champignon, The Banded Agaric and the Spring Agaric.

Etymology: bitorquis is Latin for “having two collars”.

Pileus: 4-14(18)cm wide, broadly convex soon becoming plane to slightly depressed in the center. Often dirty. Glabrous with tiny appressed fibrils, very finely scaly-flaky. White or whitish, sometimes finely cracking in age, not staining yellowish, but sometimes with a dingy yellowish or slightly grayish discoloration. Margin inrolled when young and often extending beyond the gills. Dry.

Stipe: 2—5cm long, 1.5—3(4)cm thick, white to whitish, very firm,solid, smooth, partial veil white, membranous, leaving a large and distinctive double annulus with a flaring upper edge, the lower thinner one somewhat resembles a volva in very short-stemmed individuals. Equal to enlarged at the base. Often narrowed or pointed, subterraneously.

Flesh: White, not staining but may discolor faintly pink when injured. Solid and firm.

Gills: Nearly free to free, very narrow, close to crowded, very pale pink when young, becoming pinkish brown to deep blackish brown in age.

Odor: Mild to pleasant, faintly almond.

Taste: Not distinctive or slightly mushroomy.

Edibility: Excellent.

Frequency: Somewhat rare in the Northeast.

Season: Late spring to autumn.

Spore print: Deep chocolate brown.

Microscopy: Spores subglobose to broadly elliptical, 4—6.5 × 4—5µ. smooth, apical pore absent. Nonamyloid. Basidia 4-spored, but often 2-spored. Cheliocystidia clavate, thin walled and numerous.

Habitat: Gregarious or scattered on hard-packed soil, often found along roadsides where salt is used and near barnyards. Sometimes in gardens or on compost piles. You’ll often see the ground cracking above them before the mushrooms actually appear, sometimes they are found growing right through pavement. They often fully mature while still underground.

Agaricus bitorquis is recognized by its double annuli and frequently short and stout stature as well as a strongly inrolled pileus margin. The stipe is typically very firm, this is also a key feature. Similar to the common button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and regarded as just as tasty by most who have eaten it.

Compare to Agaricus andrewii , Agaricus campestris and Agaricus arvensis

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Created: 2007-01-10 06:04:00 CET (+0100) by Nathan Wilson (nathan)
Last modified: 2011-06-07 21:10:19 CEST (+0200) by Erlon (Herbert Baker)
Viewed: 1754 times, last viewed: 2018-02-24 01:25:42 CET (+0100)
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California Fungi—Agaricus bitorquis Agaricus bitorquis
(Photo: © Fred Stevens)

Agaricus bitorquis (Quélet) Saccardo
Syll. Fung. 5:998. 1887.

Common Name: torq

Synonym: Agaricus rodmani Peck

  • Pileus

    Cap 5-15 cm broad, convex, becoming broadly so in age, sometimes expanding to plane with an upturned margin; surface smooth, whitish, often with adhering dirt; flesh white, thick, firm, unchanging; odor and taste mild.

  • Lamellae

    Gills free, close, pallid, becoming pale brown, blackish-brown at maturity.

  • Stipe

    Stipe 4-10 cm long, 2-4 cm thick, stout, equal to enlarged below, solid; surface whitish, more or less smooth, sometimes with fine, appressed scales at the apex; veil membranous, thick, white, sheathing from the base of the stipe.

  • Spores

    Spores 5-6.5 x 4-5.5 µm, smooth, elliptical; spore print chocolate brown.

  • Habitat

    Scattered to gregarious in disturbed habitats, e.g. roadsides, paths, vacant lots etc., preferring heavy soils like those surrounding San Francisco Bay; fruiting from mid to late winter.

  • Edibility

    Edible Excellent; substantial size, firm texture, and good flavor make this one of the best Agaricus species for the table.

  • Comments

    Agaricus bitorquis is recognized by a usually short, compact, stature, smooth, white, but frequently dirty cap, and partially emergent fruitings, i.e. often just breaking through the soil surface. It is most likely to be confused with A. bernardii , which is also white and similar in stature, but the latter has a distinct briny odor and the flesh turns pink when cut.

  • References

    Bougher, N.L. & Syme, K. (1998). Fungi of Southern Australia. University of Western Australia Press: Nedlands, Australia. 391 p.
    Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A.
    (2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
    Kerrigan, R.W.
    (1986). The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California. 6. Agaricaceae. Mad River Press: Eureka, CA. 62 p.
    Kerrigan, R.W. (2016). Agaricus of North America. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, NY. 574 p.
    Sánchez, L.A.P. (2008). Agaricus L.; Allopsalliota Nauta & Bas; Tribu Agariceae S. Imai: Part 1. Edizioni Candusso: Alassio, Italy. 824 p.
    Smith, A.H. (1949). Mushrooms in their Natural Habitats. Sawyer's Inc: Portland, OR. 626 p.

  • Other Descriptions and Photos Main Photo
    • Urban Mushrooms: Agaricus bitorquis (D & CP)
    • Pilzegalerie: Agaricus bitorquis (CP)
    • Arora (1986): p. 321 (D & P), plate 80 (CP)
    • Arora (1991): p. 121 (D & CP)
    • Jordan: p. 222 (D & CP)
    • Kerrigan: p. 23 (D & CP)
    • Lincoff: p. 503 (D), plate 157 (CP)
    • Miller: sp. 215 (D) [as Agaricus rodmani ]
    • Phillips: p. 190 (CP), p. 191 (D)
    • Smith & Weber: sp. 169 (D & CP)

    (D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)

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Updated: 2018-02-24 10:35:55 gmt
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