Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141. |
FEMALE—Length 5 mm.; entire body brilliant green, becoming blue in some specimens, coppery in others; mandibles blackish, with a small, subapical, inner tooth; clypeus shining, deeply and rather coarsely punctate, punctures well separated medially, apical margin narrowly blackened; supraclypeal area more finely and closely punctate; face above antennae densely and finely rugoso-punctate; cheeks below rather dull, densely tessellate, becoming somewhat more shining above; pubescence of head and thorax short, slightly tinged with yellowish above, whitish laterally and below; scutum uniformly, densely and finely rugosopunctate, becoming almost reticulate at lateroapical angles; scutellum flattened, rather dull, finely rugoso-punctate; pleura dull, rather coarsely reticulate anteriorly, otherwise finely rugose; dorsal area of propodeum somewhat narrower than metanotum, very finely, closely and completely striate, posterior margin distinct, lateral faces dull, rather coarsely reticulate, posterior face somewhat shining but finely tessellate between obscure reticulations; coxae, trochanters and femora more or less greenish, the tibiae and tarsi brownish; tegulae testaceous along outer margin, inner margin anteriorly greenish, posterior half almost piceous; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma pale testaceous; abdominal terga rather dull, punctures exceedingly minute, close and obscure, almost tessellate, apical margins rather narrowly impressed, puncturation not greatly different of that of discs, pubescence very short but rather copious, entirely white.
MALE—Length 6 mm.; entire body brilliant green, becoming blue in some specimens and coppery in others; mandibles and labrum yellowish-testaceous; clypeus shining, rather coarsely, deeply and closely punctate, apical margin narrowly yellowish; supraclypeal area somewhat more finely and closely punctate than clypeus; face above antennae dull, densely and finely rugoso-punctate; cheeks below shining, with a very few minute, scattered punctures, becoming less shining and somewhat tessellate above; scape narrowly yellowish below, otherwise black, flagellum brownish-testaceous below except for the apical segment, more piceous above, basal segments broader than long, the following segments becoming successively more elongate, apical segments about twice as long as broad; pubescence of head and thorax rather short, entirely whitish; scutum somewhat shining medially, punctures deep and distinct, slightly separated medially but otherwise closely crowtled, becoming reticulate at lateral, apical angles; scutellum somewhat shining between the very fine and quite close punctures, pleura reticulate anteriorly, otherwise rugoso-punctate; dorsal area of propodeum slightly narrower than metanotum, very finely and completely striate, posterior margin distinct, lateral faces dull, finely roughened or striate, posterior face shallowly and irregularly reticulate; tegulae yellowish-hyaline anteriorly, becoming more testaceous posteriorly; wings hyaline, veins and stigma testaceous; coxae, trochanters and femora greenish, tibiae and tarsi yellowish, mid and hind tibiae somewhat darkened medially, hind basitarsi with elongated hairs basally which are about half as long as the segment; abdominal terga somewhat shining, the more basal terga with very fine but deep, distinct and close punctures, the more apical terga becoming more tessellate, apical impressed areas rather shallow, puncturation not differing markedly from the discs, rims more or less narrowly blackened; apical margin of sternum 4 broadly and rather triangularly incurved; gonocoxites obliquely truncate and slightly emarginate apically; gonostyli extremely short, composed of a very short, truncate, outer lobe and a broad, rounded, inner lobe which bears a marginal fringe of setae; (this lobe somewhat shorter than in aurata); dorsal excavation of penis valves restricted, with a distinct, carinate, posterior margin, tips much exceeding gonsotyli.
DISTRIBUTION — Michigan to Nova Scotia, south to Texas, Mississippi and Florida, throughout the year in Florida; otherwise March to September.
FLOWER RECORDS—Berteroa, Bidens, Cirsium, Citrus, Clethra, Crataegus, Erigeron, Eryngium, Hypericum, Ilex, Lepidium, Melilotus, Oenothera, Poly gala, Polygonum, Rhus, Rubus and Taraxacum.
Reprinted from THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS SCIENCE BULLETIN
VOL. XLVI PAGES 509-624 JUNE 17, 1966 No. 16
Systematics of the Genus Augochlorella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) North of Mexico
By Ellen Okdway
Female: (1) Length 6 to 7 mm; head width 1.68 to 2.13 mm, averaging 1.92 mm; head length to width ratio variable. (2) Color yellowish green to blue; frons often with slight bluish reflections; metasoma usually more yellow or brownish than head and thorax. (3) Mandible with¬out metallic coloration basally. (4) Clypeal width about equal to length, basal two-thirds shiny green with punctures irregular in size and shape, smaller and closer at margins of clypeus than centrally; apical third brown and slightly beveled with punctures large, elongate; surface between punc¬tures smooth and shiny. (5) Supraclypeal area usually impunctate medially, lateral punctures variable in size, surface between punctures minutely rough¬ened laterally. (6) Paraocular area punctorugose below level of antennae, coarsely rugose above. (7) Antenna dark brown; flagellum slightly lighter below than above; first segment of flagellum less than 1.5 times as wide as long, pedicel slightly longer and narrower than first flagellar segment with ratio of length to width variable. (8) Scutum roughly punctate to rugoso
punctate; punctures small and contiguous; anterior margin rugose, becom¬ing areolate at anterolateral corners. (9) Tegula almost 1.5 times as long as wide. (10) Scutellum coarsely roughened and granular, punctures indistinct or absent. (11) Pleuron coarsely rugose, areolate anteriorly. (12) Propodeum with disc equal to or shorter than metanotum; outline of disc bracket-shaped, profile type 1; posterior edge of disc sharply angulate posteriorly, rounded laterally; striae fine, straight, close together, extending full length of disc; posterior vertical surface finely, unevenly roughened or granular, usually dull, occasionally with very fine, indistinct, irregular, subhorizontal rugae; posterolateral corners coarsely and often linearly roughened; lateral vertical surface weakly rugose, rugae usually lineate along anterior and ventral edge, reticulate centrally. (13) Legs brown; fore and hind coxae and outer surface of fore femur with metallic reflections. (14) First metasomal tergum with anterior surface minutely and sparsely punctured, polished and finely pubes¬cent; surface less shiny dorsally with close, minute punctures; second tergum with surface minutely reticulated, similar to following terga; sternum with¬out metallic reflections. (15) Pubescence white ventrally on head and thorax, golden elsewhere; short and dense on genal area.
Male: (1) Length 6 to 8 mm; head with 1.72 to 2.00 mm, averaging 1.86 mm, greater than, equal to or less than length. (2) Color yellow-green to royal blue, usually bright, shiny green; frons without blue reflections on green specimens; metasoma usually slightly redder than rest of body or color uniform over entire body. (3) Mandible usually with metallic reflections basally. (4) Clypeus with large, irregularly shaped punctures separated by less than their diameters; surface between punctures smooth and shiny. (5) Supraclypeal area with punctures large, shallow and close; surface be¬tween punctures minutely roughened. (6) Paraocular area with punctures small, deep and crowded. (7) Flagellum brown above, yellow-brown below; scape dark brown except for narrow light area below; pedicel usually all yellow; last flagellar segment entirely dark; pedicel and first flagellar seg¬ment each less than 1.5 times as wide as long. (8) Scutum rough, with punctures deep and distinct medially, deep and contiguous at parapsidal lines, becoming rugose anteriorly; anterior margin variably roughened medi¬ally, rugose to areolate laterally. (9) Tegula 1.5 times as long as wide. (10) Scutellum shiny, coarsely punctate, punctures irregular in size and spacing. (11) Pleuron rugose, more coarsely so anteriorly. (12) Propodeum with disc equal or subequal in length to metanotum; outline of disc weakly bracket-shaped, dorsal surface slightly concave, posterior edge sharply to weakly angulate, well defined, rounded laterally; striae usually straight, regular, fine, widely to narrowly spaced, reaching edge posteriorly and laterally; posterior vertical surface coarsely rugose, usually without punctures; postero¬lateral corners rounded with posterior rugosity extending onto lateral sur-
face; lateral vertical surface less coarsely rugose than posterior surface, rugae lineate, perpendicular to anterior and ventral edges. (13) Legs brown, fore and hind coxae brightly metallic anteriorly; trochanters and femora with at least slight metallic reflections; tibiae dark yellow, usually brownish central¬ly; basitarsi pale yellow with following segments slighdy darker; posterior basitarsus with erect hairs very long on basal third of segment, four times as long as width of basitarsus, curved at tips, becoming shorter on apical two-thirds of segment; basal tuft reduced, often inconspicuous. (14) Metasomal terga green, sometimes lighter or browner than thorax; first tergum polished anteriorly with punctures separated by slightly more than their diameters medially, closer laterally, surface smooth but less shiny dorsally, with punc¬tures slightly larger, more distinct and denser; second tergum with punctures similar to first; first sternum strongly metallic, fifth and sometimes fourth sterna with feeble metallic reflections; fourth sternum deeply and broadly emarginate apically. (15) Pubescence white to golden-white over entire body, yellowish on tarsi. (16) Genital capsule, seventh and eighth sterna and eighth tergum of type 1 (Figs. 34, 40, 44).
Comparisons. A. gratiosa is not a very common species. It has been col¬lected during all months of the year and most frequently from Georgia and Florida. It comes in contact with persimilis, aurata, striata and bracteata, the females intergrading morphologically with both aurata and striata. Although the males of gratiosa are distinct and can usually be identified by the key characters (see exception below), females are more difficult to distinguish and the subtle differences can be difficult to recognize unless samples of each are available..*
A. gratiosa is characterized chiefly by the propodeal characters in the females. The disc is as short as or shorter than the metanotum (Fig. 58). Its posterior border is usually well delineated, sometimes by a weak carina but more usually by its abruptly declivitous edge which has a weak, medial, V-shaped depression (Figs. 12, 20). The striae are fine, straight, and distinct, extending the full length of the disc; the posterior vertical surface is dull and granular, usually with short subhorizontal lineate irregularities (Fig. 76). The second metasomal tergum is granulose and similar to the following terga rather than minutely punctulate as is the first tergum.
Females of gratiosa differ from aurata by the distinct, clear-cut features of the propodeal disc, by the complete, straight striae and the nature of the posterior face and second metasomal tergum. Although aurata may also have striae as fine and close together as those of gratiosa, they are rarely as straight or regular, nor do they extend onto the posterior margin of the disc (Fig. 57). Also, in aurata, the edge of the disc is less sharply posteriorly, usually without the medial V-shaped depression, and the posterior surface is smoother, shinier and lacks the lineate irregularities. In Texas, the two species are easily distinguished by the above characters and in addition, the first metasomal tergum is strongly punctate in aurata (Fig. 82) but finely punctate as usual in gratiosa (Fig. 83). In striata the striae usually extend the full length of the disc, the disc in form A. is frequendy as well delineated posteriorly as in gratiosa, possesses the V-shaped depression and may approxi¬mate the bracket-shaped outline of gratiosa. However, if the striae are as straight and regular as those of gratiosa they usually are considerably coarser (fewer in number with greater space between them). If they are as fine as those of gratiosa they rarely are as straight, regular or well defined. In addi¬tion, the posterior vertical surface of the propodeum in striata is smoother, shinier, with minute punctures and without the lineate granular irregulari¬ties found in gratiosa, and the second tergum is similar to the first rather than the third or fourth terga.
A. gratiosa is apparenly more closely related to striata A or aurata than to any other group. There is comparatively little variation and variation at¬tributed to it in the past is seemingly partly due to misidentification based chiefly, if not exclusively, on the nature of the propodeal disc. When other characters are also used, identification becomes easier. The strict definition of gratiosa is based chiefly on the distinct and unvarying characters in the male, as opposed to the high degree of variability found in males as well as females of striata.
Variation. The few variations that exist are associated chiefly with size and color. There is a wide variation in head size (Fig. 86) with the largest individuals being found in Louisiana and Alabama. A sample of 22 female specimens was measured from Florida, and all females from other states were measured. There is some indication that there may be caste differences in size although there is no correlation between width of head and season (i.e., large, small or average individuals may be found at any time of the year). Males show similar variations in size. The width of the head, with only a few exceptions is regularly greater than the length.
Body color is rather uniformly yellowish green except in Florida where it varies from dark green to deep violet-blue. Most males (14 out of 18) and about 40% of the females are blue in Florida. In these specimens there are weak metallic reflections at the bases of the mandibles in females and on the hind tibiae of males, variations rarely found in green specimens. Only 1 out of 20 females from Georgia [Tifton, Ga., 6-13-96, Lot 209 (38*)] showed such reflections on the mandibles and two green Floridian males had slight reflections on the hind tibiae [Jacksonville 9-3-11 (9); Levy Co., Fla., 9-10-55 (10)].
The extent of brown on the clypeus of females is variable from specimen to specimen with no apparent regional trend, but it does not exceed one-third of the total length.
The degree of roughness and amount of punctation on the supraclypeal area is also variable throughout the range. The frons shows very weak bluish reflections in most green specimens when the light is properly reflected from the surface but usually there are no readily visible spots of blue such as are found in neglectula. All blue-green specimens from Florida showed differen¬tial coloring on the various parts of the body with the head usually darker (bluer) than the thorax, and the metasoma lightest (greenest) in color.
In females from Louisiana the antennae are lighter below than above as usual, but the apical third of the flagellum is lighter above than the preced¬ing segments.
The scutum in females is roughly and closely punctured throughout the range but is less so than that of striata. Punctures are usually distinct but are very close or become indeterminate or rugose anteriorly and laterally. This rugosity is not correlated with size, color or distribution, although in Florida rugosity occurs with higher frequency in blue specimens than in green ones (in 45% of the blue and 9% of the green).
The characters of the propodeum are remarkably stable in gratiosa, com¬pared with the variability in the other eastern species. The sharply delineated disc is usually bracket-shaped and narrow in females, somewhat less distinct¬ly so in males. Three of the seven females from Louisiana [2 from 8.5 a-l.ms. New Roads, 6-22-60 (20); Olivier, 5-04 (9)]; 2 of the 146 from Florida [Homestead 4-18-23 (32); Homestead 8-31-27 (9)] and one from Summer-ville, S.C. [5-10- (20) ] out of seven seen, were found with a more rounded outline although it is difficult to draw the line between one type and the other. When the posterior margin is subbracket-shaped, the medial V-shaped depression is not evident and the sharply angulate edge becomes abruptly rounded. The size of the striae varies little and only in the males do the spaces between striae vary. On the lateral sides of the propodeum of females there may or may not be very fine lineate rugae perpendicular to the anterior and ventral margins. They are present in all males seen with the exceptions noted below in Texas. Again, this seems to be a variation within populations and not correlated with season or distribution.
The first sternum of the metasoma is variously metallic in females, strongly blue or blue-green in many darker specimens to brown with faint metallic reflections in others, especially the paler specimens.
The amount of metallic coloration on the legs of females is relatively constant although any or all trochanters and femora may be slightly colored in addition to the always colored fore and hind coxae.
All Floridian females have deep golden pubescence over all the body in¬cluding the ventral parts of head and thorax, whereas in Texas, pubescence is paler with hairs whitish on the upper parts of the head and basal parts of the legs, in addition to the venter. The males do not vary in this character.
Male genitalia have the inner lobe of the gonostylus as shown in Figure 34. The fingerlike projection averages slightly longer than in the other eastern species but enough variation occurs in each of the eastern species that distinctions cannot usually be made. The outer lobe has long, unbranched hair as in other eastern species.
The two males from Texas [Nacogdoches, X-3-60 (42) and Victoria, VI-10-07 (9) ] are divergent individuals falling between gratiosa and persimilis, not fitting either group well but appearing to be most like gratiosa. On the basis of characters 1, 3 and 7, the specimen from Nacogdoches is most like gratiosa (the specimen from Victoria is without a head). The thoracic and metasomal characters of both specimens resemble those of either persimilis or gratiosa, and the hind basitarsus of each specimen is intermediate between the two species although more similar to gratiosa than to persimilis.
Distribution. From New Jersey and Washington, D.C., southward to the keys of Florida, along the Gulf Coast states into southeastern Texas, extend¬ing inland as far as northern Georgia and eastern Tennessee.