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Betula nigra L.
RIVER BIRCH
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Betulaceae   Betula

Betula nigra, River Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Betula nigra, River Birch

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Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra
Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra

Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra
Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra

Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra
Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra

Betula nigra, Black Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 5
Betula nigra, Black Birch
Betula nigra, River Birch
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 5
Betula nigra, River Birch

Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male

Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - female
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - female
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male

Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
Betula nigra, whole tree or vine - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, whole tree or vine - view up trunk

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Calaphis betulella @ I_DJV (1); CSUC_TCN (2)

Calaphis neobetulella @ NCSU_ENT (3)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta betulina @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Eratoneura linea @ III (3)

Eratoneura nigriventer @ III (1)

Erythridula coarctata @ III (1)

Erythridula nigriphylla @ III (1)

Erythroneura corni @ III (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium hydnans @ BPI (2)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium betulignum @ BPI (1)

Cladosporium caducum @ BPI (4)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginascens @ BPI (1)

Discohainesia oenotherae @ 656069B (1); BPI (1); 656069A (1)

Gloeosporium betularum @ BPI (48)

Mollisia cinerea @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Chionaspis triformis @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype stigma @ BPI (1)

Diatrypella favacea @ BPI (2)

Eutypella angulosa @ BPI (1)

Eutypella cerviculata @ BPI (1)

Eutypella microspora @ BPI (2)
Erysiphaceae  Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (8)

Phyllactinia suffulta @ BPI (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (17)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma lucidum @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Discula betulina @ BPI (1)

Gnomonia @ BPI (1)

Ophiognomonia intermedia @ BPI (2)
Graphidaceae  Phaeographis inusta @ I_GBP (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Velutaria rufo-olivacea @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete agglutinans @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete corrugata @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete curtisii @ BPI (1)
Hyponectriaceae  Physalospora gregaria @ BPI (1)

Physalospora obtusa @ BPI (3)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterium angustatum @ BPI (1)

Hysterium pulicare @ BPI (8)
Lachnocladiaceae  Asterostroma cervicolor @ BPI (1)
Lecanoraceae  Lecanora strobilina @ GAL (1)

Pyrrhospora varians @ GAL (1)
Lygaeidae  Kleidocerys resedae @ NCSU (1); UDCC_TCN (2)
Magnaporthaceae  Clasterosporium irregulare @ 427864B (1); 427864A (1)
Marasmiaceae  Lachnella fraxinicola @ BPI (1)
Melanconidaceae  Coryneum compactum @ BPI (2)

Coryneum disciforme @ BPI (2)

Coryneum irregulare @ BPI (1)

Melanconium betulinum @ BPI (2)

Melanconium bicolor @ BPI (5)
Melanommataceae  Aposphaeria pezizoides @ BPI (2)
Membracidae  Telamona tristis @ UDCC_TCN (2)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (1)

Phlebia cinnabarina @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Barberiella formicoides @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Deraeocoris betulae @ NCSU (3)

Deraeocoris nebulosus @ NCSU (2)

Deraeocoris poecilus @ NCSU (15)

Myrtlemiris astartephila @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Neolygus betulae @ NCSU_ENT (29)

Orthotylus sp_ms_graciliphilus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthotylus sp_ms_notodytikos @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthotylus ute @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phytocoris canadensis @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Plagiognathus albatus @ NCSU_ENT (102); AMNH_ENT (1)

Plagiognathus atricornis @ NCSU_ENT (41)

Plagiognathus fuscosus @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Psallus falleni @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria betulicola @ BPI (2)
Onagraceae  Kneiffia setigera @ BPI (1)
Orbiliaceae  Orbilia inflatula @ BPI (2)
Parmeliaceae  Flavoparmelia caperata @ I_GBP (1)

Hypotrachyna livida @ I_GBP (1)

Parmotrema gardneri @ I_GBP (1)

Parmotrema submarginale @ I_GBP (1)

Punctelia rudecta @ I_GBP (2)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (3)
Physciaceae  Buellia curtisii @ I_GBP (1)

Heterodermia obscurata @ GAL (1)

Pyxine sorediata @ I_GBP (1)
Pleomassariaceae  Stegonsporium muricatum @ BPI (3)
Polyporaceae  Fomes bakeri @ BPI (2)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (7)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (2)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (13)

Panus stipticus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus brumalis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus chioneus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus distortus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus elegans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fissus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus galactinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (1)

Polyporus rutilans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (1)

Polyporus @ BPI (1)

Poria laevigata @ BPI (4)

Poria unita @ BPI (1)

Trametes malicola @ BPI (1)
Pseudoperisporiaceae  Eudimeriolum septentrionale @ 691892B (1); BPI (2)

Eudimeriolum @ 691892A (1)
Pyronemataceae  Phaeangium magnisporum @ BPI (1)
Reduviidae  Zelus luridus @ NCSU_ENT (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Ciboria betulae @ BPI (3)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia brinkmannii @ BPI (1)

Steccherinum pulcherrimum @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum rameale @ BPI (3)

Stereum sericeum @ BPI (3)

Stereum tuberculosum @ BPI (1)

Stereum umbrinum @ BPI (1)
Tenthredinidae  Craesus latitarsus @ I_JP (18)
Tingidae  Corythucha pergandei @ NCSU (44)
Tulasnellaceae  Tulasnella pruinosa @ BPI (1)
Typhulaceae  Sclerotium colchicum @ BPI (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia anomala @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora betulina @ BPI (2)

Valsa ambiens @ BPI (2)

Valsa niphoclina @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon fuscum @ BPI (7)

Hypoxylon howeianum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon illitum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon multiforme @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon rubiginosum @ BPI (2)

Hypoxylon tinctor @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon truncatum @ BPI (1)

Xylaria hypoxylon @ BPI (1)
_  Cryptovalsa betulina @ BPI (1)

Grandinia mutabilis @ BPI (1)

Pilacre petersii @ BPI (1)

Sacidium microspermum @ BPI (1)

Sporidesmium antiquum @ BPI (2)

Valsaria insitiva @ BPI (3)

Valsaria nigrospora @ BPI (2)

Valsaria @ BPI (1)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (1)

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Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Betulaceae | Betula

5. Betula nigra Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 982. 1753.

River birch, red birch

Betula rubra F. Michaux

Trees , to 25 m; trunks often several, crowns round. Bark of mature trunks and branches grayish brown, yellowish, reddish, or creamy white, smooth, irregularly shredding and exfoliating in shaggy sheets when mature; lenticels dark, horizontally expanded. Twigs without wintergreen taste or odor, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, often with scattered, tiny, resinous glands. Leaf blade rhombic-ovate, with 5--12 pairs of lateral veins, 4--8 × 3--6 cm, base broadly cuneate to truncate, margins coarsely doubly serrate to dentate, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially moderately pubescent to velutinous, especially along major veins and in vein axils, often with scattered, minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect, conic or nearly globose, 1.5--3 × 1--2.5 cm, shattering with fruits in late spring or early summer; scales often persistent into early winter, lobes 3, ascending, branching distal to middle, narrow, elongate, equal to somewhat unequal in length, apex acute. Samaras with wings narrower than body, usually broadest near summit, not extended beyond body apically. 2 n = 28.

Flowering late spring. Riverbanks and flood plains, often where land is periodically inundated; 0--300 m; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Betula nigra is a large and characteristic floodplain tree. Like several other species of this habitat (e.g., Acer saccharinum Marshall and Ulmus americana Linnaeus), it releases its fruits in early summer; the seeds germinate immediately (at a time when the surrounding land is unlikely to be flooded). The wood of Betula nigra is not in high demand for timber because of its generally poor quality. Cultivars with freely exfoliating bark are commonly cultivated in the Northeast and Midwest.

Native Americans used Betula nigra medicinally to treat dysentery, colds, and milky urine (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+nigra&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+nigra&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Updated: 2017-12-12 11:59:41 gmt
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