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Bothidae
LEFTEYE FLOUNDERS
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Monolene
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Monolene
Monolene dubiosa
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Monolene dubiosa

Monolene maculipinna
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Monolene maculipinna
Perissias
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Perissias

Perissias taeniopterus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Perissias taeniopterus
Engyophrys
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Engyophrys

Engyophrys sanctilaurenti
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Engyophrys sanctilaurenti
Bothus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Bothus

Bothus leopardinus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Bothus leopardinus
Bothus mancus
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Bothus mancus

Bothus mancus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Bothus mancus
Perissias taeniopterus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Perissias taeniopterus

Bothidae
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Bothidae
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • eyes: left side
  • pelvics: eye-side before blind-side
  • ll: eye side only
  • ll: arch over pectoral, no branch under eye
FAMILY BOTHIDAE

FLOUNDERS, LEFT-EYE FLOUNDERS

Flounders are recognized by their flattened shape with both eyes located on the left side of the body. The edge of the preopercle is exposed and easily visible; the origin of eye-side pelvic fin before that of the blind-side fin; and the lateral line on the eye side strongly arched above the pectoral without an extension under the lower eye. The dorsal fin originates either above or ahead of the eye, and both dorsal and anal fins contain numerous segmented rays and are separated from the tail fin.

These flatfishes they typically inhabit soft bottom areas, and are frequently a common component of trawler catches. Their coloration blends remarkably well with the bottom and they possess the ability to rapidly change their coloration to match the substratum. The diet of flounders consists mainly of fishes and crustaceans. Worldwide this tropical to temperate family contains about 131 species in 20 genera. In the tropical eastern Pacific there are five species from four genera in shallow waters, including one Indo-Pacific and four endemic species and one endemic genus.


References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1936., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Heterosomata to Pediculati from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(3):1-56.
  • Broussonet, P.M.A., 1782., Ichthyologia, sistens piscium descriptiones et icones. Decas I., London:49.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. and Balart, E. F., 1997., Contribución al conocimiento de la ictiofauna de fondos blandos y someros de la Ensenada de La Paz y Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:139-150.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Clark, H.W., 1936., The Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences.1932. No. 29. New and noteworthy fishes., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4), 4:21(29):383-396.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Evseenko, S.A., 1999., Early developmental stages of two flounder species of the genus Monolene - M. dubiosa and M. maculipinna (Bothidae) - from central waters of the Eastern Pacific with notes on taxonomic status of M. asaedai and M. danae., Journal Ichthyology (English translation of Voprosy Ikhtiologie), 39:600-605.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fukui, A., 1997., Early ontogeny and systematics of Bothidae, Pleuronectoidei., Bull. Mar. Sci., 60:192-212.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Garman, S., 1899., The Fishes. In: Reports of an exploration off the west coasts of Mexico, Central and South America, and off the Galapagos Islands, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross," during 1891. L.C.Z.L. Tannar, U.S.N. commanding XXVI., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 24:432pp.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1890., A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer "Albatross" on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new genera and ninety-two new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 13:49-126.
  • González Navarro , E. and Saldierna Martínez, R., 1997., Zooplancton de la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S. (1990-1991). En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:43-58.
  • Grove , J.S. and Lavenberg, R. J., 1997., The fishes of the Galápagos islands., Stanford University Press:863 pp.
  • Günther, A., 1862., Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Acanthopterygii Pharyngognathi and Anacanthini in the collection of the British Muesum., Brithish Museum (Natural History)4:1-534.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part III., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:2183-3136.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1928., The marine fishes of Panama. Part III., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:709-1045.
  • Morales-Nin, B., 1994., Growth of demersal fish species in the Mexican Pacific Ocean., Marine Biology, 121:211-217.
  • Nelson, J.S., 1984., Fishes of the World (Third edition)., John Wiley and Sons:523pp.
  • Norman, J. R., 1934., A systematic monograph of the flatfishes (Heterosomata) Vol. I Psettodidae, Bothidae, Pleuronectidae., Brithish Museum (Natural History):1-459.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Perkins, H. C., 1963., Redescription and second known record of the bothid fish, Monolene asaedai Clark., Copeia, 1963:292-295.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rodríguez-Romero, J., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sanchez, F.J., Aguilar-Palomino, B., Arvizú-Martínez, J., 1998., Ecology of fish communities from the soft bottoms of Bahía Concepción, México., Arch. Fish. Mar. Res., 46:61-76.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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