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Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass &. Heller, 1905)
GALAPAGOS SHARK
Carcharias galapagensis Snodgrass and Heller, 1905; Galapago Shark

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Carcharhinus

Carcharhinus galapagensis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Carcharhinus galapagensis

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Carcharhinus galapagensis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Carcharhinus galapagensis
Carcharhinus galapagensis
© Copyright John Rangall, 2006 · 0
Carcharhinus galapagensis

Carcharhinus galapagensis
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Carcharhinus galapagensis
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • 1st dorsal fin : high, pointed, front straight
  • 1st dorsal fin : origin over rear 1/3 pectoral inner margin
  • low ridge between ds 2nd dorsal fin less than 2.3 percent total length
  • pectoral: rear edge ~straight
A large, relatively slender grey shark; snout moderately long and broadly rounded; a low ridge between dorsal fins; origin of first dorsal fin above about rear edge of pectoral fins; first dorsal fin moderately large (to height 9.1-12.1% or more of total length), with straight front edge, its apex pointed or narrowly rounded, moderately concave rear edge its origin over the pectoral fin; origin of second dorsal fin about over anal fin origin; pectorals large, with rounded to pointed tips and straight rear edge.

Brownish grey on back and sides, white below; tips of most fins dusky, especially underside of pectorals.

Attains 370 cm; size at birth 57-80 cm.

Habitat: usually associated with oceanic islands. Often occurs in aggregations.

Depth: 0-180 m.

Circumtropical distribution; all the oceanic islands, also coasts of Baja California, and the Gulf of California to Peru.

Very similar in appearance and easily confused with C. obscurus; best means of separation is the taller dorsal fin of C. galapagensis (9.1-12.1 % of TL vs. 5.8-9.9 % for C. obscurus).



Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 180 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=29; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=35; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Water column; Reef (rock &/or coral).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 370 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Gotshall, D.W., 1996., Fishes of Rocas Alijos. In Rocas Alijos. Ed. R. W. Schmieder. Cornell Expeditions., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 347-354.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In Graham, J.B. (ed.) The Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia., Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 176:91-93.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=galapagensis ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Carcharhinus-galapagensis.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carcharhinus galapagensis   (Snodgrass & Heller, 1905)

Galapagos shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Pictures | Videos     Google image Image of Carcharhinus galapagensis (Galapagos shark) Carcharhinus galapagensis
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 286 m (Ref. 58302 ), usually 30 - 180 m (Ref. 37816 ).   Tropical; 36°N - 41°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55181 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumtropical with a preference for waters around oceanic islands. Eastern Atlantic: including St. Paul's Rocks (Refs. 13121, 52289). Western Indian Ocean: including Walter's Shoal, south of Madagascar. Western Pacific: including Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs. Eastern Pacific: Galápagos (Ref. 58896 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 215 - 245 cm
Max length : 370 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602 ); common length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9253 ); max. published weight: 85.5 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 31395 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. Low inter-dorsal ridge present (Ref.9997). Dark grey above, light below, fins plain or with slightly dusky tips (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A common but habitat-limited tropical shark found close inshore to well as offshore near or on insular or continental shelves (Ref. 244 ). Prefers clear water with coral and rocky bottoms (Ref. 244 ). Although a coastal pelagic species, it is capable of crossing considerable distances of open ocean between islands (at least 50 km) (Ref. 244 ). Juveniles restricted to shallower water, in 25 m or less (Ref. 244; 37816 ). Found in superficial aggregations (Ref. 244 ). Tends to feed near the bottom but may take bait from the surface (Ref. 5485 ). Feeds mainly on bottom fishes, also squid and octopi (Ref. 244 ). In the Galapagos Is. it preys on sea lions and marine iguanas (Ref. 28023 ). Aggressive and dangerous to people (Ref. 9997 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). 6 to 16 young of 57 to 80 cm are born per litter (Ref. 1602 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, with a yolk sac placenta (Ref. 244 ). 6 to 16 young born at 60-80 cm (Ref. 26346 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 15 - 28.2, mean 23.8 (based on 1899 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4). Prior r = 0.1, 2 SD range = 0.01 - 0.70, log(r) = -2.3, SD log(r) = 1, Based on: 4 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen Fish Forum
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