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Carcharhinus leucas (Müller &. Henle, 1839)
BULL SHARK
Estuary Shark; Estuary Whaler Shark; Freshwater Whaler; Hervey Bay Whaler Shark; River Whaler; River Whaler Shark; Swan River Whaler Shark; Carcharhinus bogima Whitley, 1943; Carcharhinus mckaili Whitley, 1945; Carcharhinus spenceri Ogilby, 1911; Eulamia bogimba Whitley, 1943; Eulamia spenceri Ogilby, 1911; Galeolamna mckaili Whihtley, 1945; Galeolamna spenceri Ogilby, 1911; Carcharhinus gangeticus Müller and Henle, 1839; Platypodon gangeticus Müller and Henle, 1839; Carcharias spenceri Ogilby, 1910; Galeolamna bogimba Whitley, 1943; Galeolamna greyi mckaili Whitley, 1945; Carcharias leucas Müller and Henle, 1839

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Carcharhinus leucas
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Carcharhinus leucas

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Carcharhinus leucas
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Carcharhinus leucas
Carcharhinus leucas
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Carcharhinus leucas

Carcharhinus leucas
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Carcharhinus leucas
Carcharhinus leucas
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Carcharhinus leucas
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Overview
Main identification features
  • heavy body;snout very short, round
  • 1st dorsal fin broad, high, pointed, origin over pectoral insertion
  • pectoral: broad, pointed
Heavy-bodied; snout short and broadly rounded; eye small; no ridge on back between dorsal fins; origin of first dorsal fin usually over or just posterior to pectoral axil; first dorsal fin moderately large, its height 7.0-11.3% of total length; apex of first dorsal fairly pointed; origin of second dorsal distinctly in front of anal origin; pectoral wide, pointed.

Grey, becoming white ventrally, often with faint pale grey horizontal band extending into the white of the upper abdomen; fins of small individuals with dusky tips or edges, adults plain.

May reach 350 cm; size at birth 56-81cm.

Habitat: continental coasts, estuarine, muddy areas, lagoons, often travels far up rivers.

Depth: 0-150 m.

All tropical and subtropical seas; southern California to the Gulf and to Peru, Malpelo and the Revillagigedos.





Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 150 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); octopus/squid/cuttlefish; sharks/rays; sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Mangrove; Water column; Reef (rock &/or coral); Rocks; Reef and soft bottom; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Mud; Sand & gravel; Beach; Estuary; Freshwater.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 350 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Freshwater; Marine.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Candanedo , C. and D'Croz, L., 1983., Ecosistema acuático del lago Bayano: un embalse tropical., Publicación Técnica IRHE, Dirección de Ingenieria, Departamento de Hidrometeorología, Panamá., :38pp.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Compagno , L. J. V. and Cook, S. F., 1995., The exploitation and conservation of freshwater elasmobranchs: status of taxa and prospects for the future., Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences, 7:62-90.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In Graham, J.B. (ed.) The Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia., Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 176:91-93.
  • Müller , J. and Henle, F. G. J., 1839., Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Berlin., Plagiostomen, :27-102.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/33780c17-6ce3-4315-8ccf-850a40ed0be6 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/33780c17-6ce3-4315-8ccf-850a40ed0be6
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Carcharhinus  
  Carcharhinus leucas    (Müller & Henle, 1839) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharhinus amboinensis Carcharhinus azureus Carcharhinus nicaraguensis Carcharhinus vanrooyeni Carcharhinus zambezensis Carcharias azureus Carcharias leucas Carcharias spenceri Carcharias zambesensis Carcharias zambezensis Carcharinus leucas details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A large, stout species; size up to about 3.4 m. Snout short and bluntly and broadly rounded; internarial width 0.7-1.0 times in preoral length; upper labial furrows short and inconspicuous; the 3rd gill slit 3.1-4.1 of total length, but less than 1/3 of 1st dorsal fin base; anteroposterior teeth formula in each jaw half 12-14/12-13; upper teeth with very broad, triangular, strongly serrated, erect to slightly oblique cusps; lower teeth with erect to semioblique, broad serracted cusps and arched roots. Interdorsal ridge absent. First dorsal fin large, with a pointed rounded apex; origin of 1st dorsal fin usually over or just behind pectoral insertions; length of inner margin of 1st dorsal fin short, less than 1/3 of dorsal fin base; 2nd dorsal fin large and high, its length 3.2-4.5 of total length; origin of second dorsal anterior to anal origin; pectoral fin large and broad, triangular, with narrow, pointed apices, length of anterior margins about 18-21% of total length; 198-227 total vertebral centra, 101-123 precaudal centra. 
Habitat: A coastal, estuarine, riverine and lacustrine shark usually found close inshore in marine habitats, in water 0-152 m depth. Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta; number of young 1-13 per litter; some females may give birth to young in fresh water lakes su 
Distribution: Wide distribute along the continental coasts of all tropical and subtropical seas and sometimes traveling far up warm rivers and into freshwater lakes. In Taiwan, this species were caught by longliner from northeastern and eastern waters uncommonly. 
Utility: An important fisheries species. It is caught mainly with longlines and hook-and-line gear and utilized fresh, fresh-frozen or smoked for human consumption; its hide is used for leather, its fins for shark-fin soup, and its liver for oil, which is extracte 
Name Code: 383073
  IUCN Red List:NT      
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=leucas ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Carcharhinus-leucas.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carcharhinus leucas   (Müller & Henle, 1839)

Bull shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Carcharhinus leucas   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Carcharhinus leucas (Bull shark) Carcharhinus leucas
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 1 - 152 m (Ref. 30573 ), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 55183 ).   Subtropical; 42°N - 39°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55182 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical waters (Ref. 81283 ): widespread in warm oceans, rivers and lakes (Ref. 4716 ). Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Argentina (Ref. 58839 ); eastern Atlantic: Morocco, Senegal to Angola (Ref. 81283 , 81623 ); Indo-Pacific: Kenya and South Africa to India, then, Viet Nam to Australia; southern Baja California, Mexico to Ecuador and possibly occurring in Peru. In freshwater it can be found in rivers of West Africa from Gambia River to Ogowe River (Ref. 81283 ). Sympatric with Carcharhinus amboinensis , Glyphis gangeticus .

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 193.0 , range 180 - 230 cm
Max length : 360 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 85726 ); 400.0 cm TL (female); common length : 260 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9253 ); max. published weight: 316.5 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 32 years (Ref. 42004 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. Diagnosis: Carcharhinus leucas is a massive shark with a short, broad and blunt snout, small eyes and triangular saw-edged upper teeth, and lack of interdorsal ridge, characters which are sufficient to distinguish this species (Ref. 26938 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A coastal and freshwater shark inhabiting shallow waters especially in bays, estuaries, rivers, and lakes (Ref. 244 ). It readily penetrates far up rivers and hypersaline bays and littoral lagoons (Ref. 9997 , 44894 , 81283 ). Capable of covering great distances (up to 180 kilometers in 24 hours), moving between fresh and brackish water at random (Ref. 44894 ). Adults often found near estuaries and freshwater inflows to the sea; young enter rivers and may be found hundreds of km from the sea (Ref. 4967 , 44894 , 58304 ). Feeds on bony fishes, other sharks, rays, mantis shrimps, crabs, squid, sea snails, sea urchins, mammalian carrion, sea turtles, and occasionally garbage (Ref. 244 , 5578 , 44894 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Gives birth to litters of up to 13 young (Ref. 26938 , 44894 ). Size at birth is 56-81 cm TL (Ref. 81623 ). Sexual maturity is attained after 10-15 years (at a length between 160-200 centimeters) (Ref. 44894 ). Though not commercially important, this species is a good food fish (Ref. 12484 ). Utilized fresh, fresh-frozen or smoked for human consumption, fins for soup, hide for leather, liver for oil, and carcass for fishmeal (Ref. 244 ). Very hardy and lives well in captivity (Ref. 244 ). This large shark is potentially dangerous to man (Ref. 81283 ), probably the most dangerous species of tropical shark (Ref. 244 ), and it is repeatedly implicated in attacks on humans (Ref. 4967 , 44894 ); attacks in fresh water are rare (Ref. 44894 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparpous, with a yolk-sac placenta, 1-13 young in a litter. Size at birth about 60 cm TL (Ref. 9997 ). In the western North Atlantic off Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, and off South Africa, young are born in late spring or early summer. Off Nicaragua, females may have young throughout the year, with a peak in spring and early summer. Estimated gestation period is 10 to 11 months (Ref. 244 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). Females often have courtship scars, but males are rarely seen with fighting scars (Ref. 244 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 23.2 - 29, mean 27.5 (based on 2930 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00327 - 0.00531), b=3.08 (3.03 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.3   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.04-0.08; tm=6-18; tmax=28). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

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