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Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur, 1818)
DUSKY WHALER
Black Whaler; Black Whaler Shark; Bronze Whaler; Common Whaler Shark; Dusky Shark; River Whaler; Slender Whaler Shark; Carcharhinus macrurus Ramsay and Ogilby, 1887; Carcharias obscurus Lesueur, 1818; Carcharinus obscurus Lesueur, 1818; Eulamia ebilis Whitley, 1944; Eulamia macrura Ramsay and Ogilby, 1887; Galeolamna macrurus Ramsay and Ogilby, 1877; Carcharias macrurus Ramsay and Ogilby, 1887; Galeolamna eblis Whitley, 1944; Squalus obscurus Lesueur, 1818

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Carcharhinus

Carcharhinus obscurus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Carcharhinus obscurus

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Carcharhinus obscurus
© Copyright John Rangall, 2006 · 0
Carcharhinus obscurus
Carcharhinus obscurus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Carcharhinus obscurus

Carcharhinus obscurus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Carcharhinus obscurus
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Overview
Main identification features
  • snout short, round; large eyes
  • 1st dorsal fin : moderate, round front edge; origin ~opposite pectoral rear tip
  • low ridge ds 2nd dorsal fin greater than 2.3 percent total length
  • pectoral: large, curved rear edge
Snout short, rounded, length before mouth 5.7-8.4% of total length; ridge on back between dorsal fins; origin of first dorsal fin over or slightly behind inner rear corner of pectoral fins; first dorsal fin relatively low; the height 5.8-10.4% of total length, tip pointed to narrowly rounded; origin of second dorsal above anal fin origin; pectoral large, curved.

Grey, shading to white ventrally, with a faint, near-horizontal, grey band invading the white of upper abdomen; tips of fins dusky.

Size: reaches 420 cm; size at birth 69-100 cm.

Habitat: Inshore to offshore coastal- pelagic, primarily on continental shelves, not in low salinity habitats.

Depth: 0-400 m.

Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas; from California to the Gulf of California and central Mexico, and the Revillagigedos.

Similar to, Galapagos Shark but with dorsal fin pointed and shorter.




Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos).
Depth Range Max: 400 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: sharks/rays; bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); sharks/rays; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=19; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-105; Latitudinal range=14; Longitudinal range=13.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); TEP non-endemic; West + East Pacific (but not Central); "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 420 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Compagno , L. J. V. and Cook, S. F., 1995., The exploitation and conservation of freshwater elasmobranchs: status of taxa and prospects for the future., Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences, 7:62-90.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gelsleichter , J. , Musick , J. A. and Nichols, S., 1999., Food habits of the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis, dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, and the sand tiger, Carcharias tauruss, from the northwest Atlantic Ocean., Environmental Biology of Fishes, 54:205-217.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Lesueur, C. A., 1818., Description of several new species of North American fishes., J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1:222-235.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Musick, J.A., Harbin, M.M., Berkeley, S.A., Burgess, G.H. Eklund, A.M., Findley, L., Gilmore, R.G., Golden, J.T., Ha, D.S., Huntsman, G.R., McGovern, J.C., Parker, S.J., Poss, S.G., Sala, E., & Schmidt, T.W., Sedberry, G.R., Weeks, H., Wright, S.G., 2000., Marine, estuarine, and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (exclusive of Pacific salmonids)., Fisheries, 25:6-30.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villavicencio Garayzar , C. J. , Mariano Meléndez , E. and Downton Hoffmann, C., 1997., Tiburones capturados comercialmente en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:201-236.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/98c33d5e-a888-4e3d-99fe-31e0d8d9bae5 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/98c33d5e-a888-4e3d-99fe-31e0d8d9bae5
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Carcharhinus  
  Carcharhinus obscurus    (Lesueur, 1818) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharhinus iranzae Carcharhinus lamiella Carcharhinus obscurella Carcharias macrurus Carcharinus iranzae Carcharinus obscurus Eulamia obscura Galeolamna macrurus Prionodon obvelatus Squalus obscurus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A large, fairly slender species. Snout short to moderately long and broadly rounded. Eyes moderately large, its length 1-2.1% of total length. Gill slits moderately long, length of the 3rd 2.7-4% of total length and less than a third of 1st dorsal fin base. Rows of anteroposterior teeth in each jaw half 14-15/13-15. Upper teeth with broad, triangular, strong serrated, rather low erect to slightly oblique cusps, that smoothly merge into crown feet which have slightly coarser serrations but no cusplets. Lower teeth with erect, moderately broad, serrated cusps and tranverse or sometimes arched roots. Interdorsal ridge present. First dorsal fin moderated-sized, with a pointed or narrowly rounded apex. Origin of 1st dorsal fin usually over or slightly anterior to the pectoral free rear tips. Inner margin of 1st dorsal moderately short, a third of dorsal fin base or less. Second dorsal fin small and low, its height 1.5-2.3% of total length. Origin of 2nd dorsal fin about over anal origin. Pectoral fin large, with a narrow rounded or pointed apices. Number of total vertebral centra 173-194, precaudal centra 86-97. Tips of most fins dusky but not black or white. An inconspicuous white band on flank. 
Habitat: A common, coastal-pelagic, inshore and offshore warm-temperate and tropical shark. This species is strongly migratory in temperate and subtropical area in eastern North Pacific and western North Atlantic. Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta. Litter size  
Distribution: Western Atlantic including southern Massachusetts and George Bank to Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, north Gulf of Mexico, and Nicaragua. Eastern north Atlantic including Canary and Cape Verde Islands, Senegal, Sierra Leone. Western Indian Ocean including South A 
Utility: A very common offshore shark regularly caught with longline, hook-and-line and set bottom nets. It is utilized fresh, dried salted, frozen and smoked for human consumption, hides for leather, fins for shark-fin soup base, and liver oil extracted for vitam 
Name Code: 383078
  IUCN Red List:LR/nt      
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=obscurus ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Carcharhinus-obscurus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carcharhinus obscurus   (Lesueur, 1818)

Dusky shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Carcharhinus obscurus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Stamps, Coins | Google image Image of Carcharhinus obscurus (Dusky shark) Carcharhinus obscurus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 244 ), usually 200 - 400 m.   Subtropical; 45°N - 46°S, 120°W - 156°E (Ref. 55186 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern Massachusetts to Florida (USA), Georges Bank, Bahamas, Cuba, northern Gulf of Mexico, Nicaragua, southern Brazil and Uruguay (Ref. 58839 ). Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Senegal, Sierra Leone. Some records from the Mediterranean and Madeira may be based on Carcharhinus galapagensis . Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 5485 ), Mozambique and South Africa to Japan, China, Viet Nam and Australia. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Gulf of California and the Revillagigedo Island. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 235.0 , range 220 - 300 cm
Max length : 420 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578 ); common length : 250 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999 ); max. published weight: 346.5 kg (Ref. 4699 ); max. reported age: 40 years (Ref. 31395 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A large shark with a broadly rounded snout, triangular saw-edged upper teeth, curved moderate-sized pectoral fins, and an interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578 ). Blue-grey, lead-grey above, white below; tips of pectoral and pelvic fins, as well as lower lobe of caudal fin and dorsal fins often dusky in young, plain in adults (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal and offshore waters but not oceanic (Ref. 5578 ). Adults are commonly found at depths of 200-400 m, young in shallower waters (Ref. 5485 ). A seasonal migratory species over parts of its range (Ref. 6871 ). Common component of the catch of the shark longline fishery (Ref.58048). Feeds on bottom and pelagic bony fish, sharks, skates, rays, cephalopods, gastropods, crustaceans, sometimes mammalian carrion and inorganic objects (Ref. 5578 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ); with litter size number from 3-14 (Ref. 27549 ). Large adults are potentially dangerous (Ref. 4716 , 6871 ). Utilized fresh, dried-salted, frozen and smoked for human consumption; hides for leather; fins for sharks-fin soup; and liver oil extracted for vitamins (Ref. 244 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta, litter size 3-14 pups (Ref. 244 ); 70-100 cm at birth (Ref. 6871 ). Gestation period of ~ 16 months (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd)

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 8.7 - 18.6, mean 12.6 (based on 736 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00432 - 0.01334), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.3   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (rm=0.02; also Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717 )). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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