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Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.
PENNSYLVANIA BITTERCRESS
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Brassicaceae   Cardamine

Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 5
Cardamine pensylvanica

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Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Cardamine pensylvanica

Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 3
Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 2
Cardamine pensylvanica

Cardamine pensylvanica, plant
© Kay Yatskievych, 2003 · 1
Cardamine pensylvanica, plant

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Peronosporaceae  Peronospora parasitica @ BPI (9)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. Pennsylvania Bittercress
Brassicaceae — Mustard family
Native
Cardamine pensylvanica
White Clay Creek State Park -- Creek Road
May 2004 Cardamine pensylvanica
Middle Run Valley Natural Area
April 2008 Cardamine pensylvanica
Woodlawn Tract
April 2016

Guide to Cardamine of Delaware

More information on this plant, from other sources.


Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Caramine pensylvanica  Muhl.

Cardamine pensylvanica plant

Family - Brassicaceae

Stems - To 30cm tall, erect, herbaceous, from a weak taproot, multiple from the base, green, purple in strong sun, branching, mostly glabrous but with a few retrorse or spreading hairs near the base, terete or angled.

Cardamine pensylvanica stem Upper stem.

Cardamine pensylvanica stem Lower stem.

Leaves - Basal leaves few, no rosette present, alternate, petiolate. The largest leaves to +10cm long, 3cm broad, pinnate, with 2-3 pairs of lateral leaflets. Terminal leaflet broader than long on the lowest leaves and becoming more narrow in upper leaves, typically somewhat 3-lobed. All leaflets glabrous, with 3 main veins from the base of the blade (veins visible abaxially). Upper leaves with more lateral leaflets than lower leaves. Leaflets oblanceolate to oblong, entire or with 1-2 lobes, blunt at the tip or with a minute mucro.

Cardamine pensylvanica leaves

Inflorescence - Terminal raceme, compact in flower, quickly elongating in fruit, to +10cm long. Pedicels to 4mm long in flower, to 6mm long in fruit, ascending, glabrous. Axis of inflorescence glabrous.

Flowers - Petals 4, white, glabrous, spreading. Stamens 6, erect. Sepals 4, green, glabrous, with slightly scarious margins, to 1.7mm long, 1mm broad, cupped. Siliques to 2cm long, glabrous, terete, slightly beaked (the beak to 1mm long), many-seeded, elastically dehiscent, 2-valved, erect.

Cardamine pensylvanica flower

Flowering - March - July.

Habitat - Low wet woods, spring branches, base of moist bluffs.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This little species can be found mostly in the lower 2/3 of Missouri in the habitats mentioned above. This species nd another, C. parviflora L. , can be difficult to distinguish. The two plants grow in different habitats. C. pensylvanica grows in moist to wet soils of low areas and C. parviflora prefers drier soils of upland areas. Both plants can be eaten raw or cooked as greens.

Photographs taken in Gainesville, FL., 2-16-03, and off Lee Rd 10, Lee County, AL., 3-2-06.


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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CAPE3 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CAPE3
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CAPE3 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CAPE3
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.
Pennsylvania bittercress

Image of Cardamine pensylvanica

General Information
Symbol: CAPE3
Group: Dicot
Family: Brassicaceae
Duration: Annual
Biennial
Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
L48   N
SPM   N
Characteristics
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Cardamine thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species . Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 184. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
CAPEB Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. var. brittoniana Farw.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Capparales
Family Brassicaceae ⁄ Cruciferae – Mustard family
Genus Cardamine L. – bittercress
Species Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. – Pennsylvania bittercress

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FACW
Arid West FACW
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACW
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont OBL
Great Plains FACW
Midwest FACW
Northcentral & Northeast FACW
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACW

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CAPE3)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CAPEB)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (CAPE3)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (CAPE3)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (CAPE3)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (CAPE3)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (CAPE3)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 7 Page 466, 482 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Brassicaceae | Cardamine

34. Cardamine pensylvanica Muhlenberg ex Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 486. 1801.

Cardamine flexuosa Withering subsp. pensylvanica (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) O. E. Schulz; C. hirsuta Linnaeus var. pensylvanica (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) P. W. Graff; C. multifolia Rydberg; C. pensylvanica var. brittoniana Farwell; C. rotundifolia Michaux var. diversifolia O. E. Schulz; Dracamine pensylvanica (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Nieuwland

Annuals or biennials; sparsely hirsute basally, glabrous distally. Rhizomes absent. Stems (simple from base), erect, (not flexuous), unbranched or branched distally, (0.5-)1.5-5.5(-7) dm. Basal leaves (soon withered), not rosulate, similar to proximalmost cauline leaves, 4-15 cm. Cauline leaves (3-)5-20(-35), pinnately (5 or) 7-13(-19)-foliolate, sometimes appearing pinnatisect, lobe number similar to leaflets (middle and proximal ones 2-11 cm), petiolate, leaflets petiolulate, subsessile, or sessile; petiole (0.4-)1-3.5(-4.5) cm, base not auriculate, (often sparsely hirsute); lateral leaflets shortly petiolulate or sessile, (decurrent on rachis smaller than terminal, distalmost blades narrower, with fewer lobes or leaflets), margins entire or crenate; terminal leaflet (subsessile or petiolule to 1 cm), blade suborbicular, obovate to oblanceolate, or elliptic, 1.3-3(-4) cm × 6-25 mm, base often cuneate, margins entire, repand, or obscurely 3 or 5-lobed. Racemes ebracteate. Fruiting pedicels divaricate-ascending, (3-)4-10(-13) mm. Flowers: sepals oblong, (1-)1.3-2.3 × 0.5-1 mm, lateral pair not saccate basally; petals white, narrowly spatulate to oblanceolate, 2-3.5(-4) × 0.8-1.5 mm, (not clawed); filaments: median pairs 1.5-2.5 mm, lateral pair 1-2 mm; anthers ovate, 0.2-0.3 mm. Fruits linear, (torulose), (1.4-)1.7-2.7(-3.2) cm × 0.8-1.1 mm; ovules 40-80 per ovary; style 0.5-1 mm. Seeds brown, oblong to ovoid, 0.7-1.1 × 0.5-0.8 mm. 2 n = 32, 64.

Flowering Apr-Jul. Marshes, streams, swamps, ditches, seepage, springs, lake margins, mesic bottomland and upland forests, wet areas, ledges of sheltered bluffs, banks and shallow water of streams and spring branches, margins of crop fields, waste ground; 0-2800 m; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

We have not seen material of Cardamine pensylvanica from Nebraska or South Dakota; it is very likely that the species grows in these states as well.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+pensylvanica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+pensylvanica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 14
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cardamine pensylvanica%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0529 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0530 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0531 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0532 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0408 1481 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
(shown with Calandrinia ciliata )
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4091 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
(shown with Calandrinia ciliata, Sonchus oleraceus )
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4092 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4093 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4094 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4095 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4096 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4097 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4098 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
ID: 0000 0000 0815 4099 [detail]
© 2015 Jean Pawek

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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