- To 30cm tall, erect, herbaceous, from a weak taproot, multiple from the base, green, purple in strong sun, branching, mostly glabrous but with a few retrorse or spreading hairs near the base, terete or angled.
- Basal leaves few, no rosette present, alternate, petiolate. The largest leaves to +10cm long, 3cm broad, pinnate, with 2-3 pairs of lateral leaflets. Terminal leaflet broader than long on the lowest leaves and becoming more narrow in upper leaves, typically somewhat 3-lobed. All leaflets glabrous, with 3 main veins from the base of the blade (veins visible abaxially). Upper leaves with more lateral leaflets than lower leaves. Leaflets oblanceolate to oblong, entire or with 1-2 lobes, blunt at the tip or with a minute mucro.
- Terminal raceme, compact in flower, quickly elongating in fruit, to +10cm long. Pedicels to 4mm long in flower, to 6mm long in fruit, ascending, glabrous. Axis of inflorescence glabrous.
- Petals 4, white, glabrous, spreading. Stamens 6, erect. Sepals 4, green, glabrous, with slightly scarious margins, to 1.7mm long, 1mm broad, cupped. Siliques to 2cm long, glabrous, terete, slightly beaked (the beak to 1mm long), many-seeded, elastically dehiscent, 2-valved, erect.
- March - July.
- Low wet woods, spring branches, base of moist bluffs.
- Native to U.S.
- This little species can be found mostly in the lower 2/3 of Missouri in the habitats mentioned above. This species nd another,
, can be difficult to distinguish. The two plants grow in different habitats.
grows in moist to wet soils of low areas and
prefers drier soils of upland areas. Both plants can be eaten raw or cooked as greens.
Photographs taken in Gainesville, FL., 2-16-03, and off Lee Rd 10, Lee County, AL., 3-2-06.
Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA SCS. 1989.
Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species
. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI).
Muhlenberg ex Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 486. 1801.
(Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) O. E. Schulz;
(Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) P. W. Graff;
O. E. Schulz;
(Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Nieuwland
Annuals or biennials;
sparsely hirsute basally, glabrous distally.
(simple from base), erect, (not flexuous), unbranched or branched distally, (0.5-)1.5-5.5(-7) dm.
(soon withered), not rosulate, similar to proximalmost cauline leaves, 4-15 cm.
(3-)5-20(-35), pinnately (5 or) 7-13(-19)-foliolate, sometimes appearing pinnatisect, lobe number similar to leaflets (middle and proximal ones 2-11 cm), petiolate, leaflets petiolulate, subsessile, or sessile; petiole (0.4-)1-3.5(-4.5) cm, base not auriculate, (often sparsely hirsute); lateral leaflets shortly petiolulate or sessile, (decurrent on rachis smaller than terminal, distalmost blades narrower, with fewer lobes or leaflets), margins entire or crenate; terminal leaflet (subsessile or petiolule to 1 cm), blade suborbicular, obovate to oblanceolate, or elliptic, 1.3-3(-4) cm × 6-25 mm, base often cuneate, margins entire, repand, or obscurely 3 or 5-lobed.
divaricate-ascending, (3-)4-10(-13) mm.
sepals oblong, (1-)1.3-2.3 × 0.5-1 mm, lateral pair not saccate basally; petals white, narrowly spatulate to oblanceolate, 2-3.5(-4) × 0.8-1.5 mm, (not clawed); filaments: median pairs 1.5-2.5 mm, lateral pair 1-2 mm; anthers ovate, 0.2-0.3 mm.
linear, (torulose), (1.4-)1.7-2.7(-3.2) cm × 0.8-1.1 mm; ovules 40-80 per ovary; style 0.5-1 mm.
brown, oblong to ovoid, 0.7-1.1 × 0.5-0.8 mm.
= 32, 64.
Flowering Apr-Jul. Marshes, streams, swamps, ditches, seepage, springs, lake margins, mesic bottomland and upland forests, wet areas, ledges of sheltered bluffs, banks and shallow water of streams and spring branches, margins of crop fields, waste ground; 0-2800 m; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.
We have not seen material of
from Nebraska or South Dakota; it is very likely that the species grows in these states as well.
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