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Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Brassicaceae   Cardamine

Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 5
Cardamine pensylvanica

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Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Cardamine pensylvanica

Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 3
Cardamine pensylvanica
Cardamine pensylvanica
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 2
Cardamine pensylvanica

Cardamine pensylvanica, plant
© Kay Yatskievych, 2003 · 1
Cardamine pensylvanica, plant

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Peronosporaceae  Peronospora parasitica @ BPI (9)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. Pennsylvania Bittercress
Brassicaceae — Mustard family
Cardamine pensylvanica
White Clay Creek State Park -- Creek Road
May 2004 Cardamine pensylvanica
Middle Run Valley Natural Area
April 2008 Cardamine pensylvanica
Woodlawn Tract
April 2016

Guide to Cardamine of Delaware

More information on this plant, from other sources.

Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Caramine pensylvanica  Muhl.

Cardamine pensylvanica plant

Family - Brassicaceae

Stems - To 30cm tall, erect, herbaceous, from a weak taproot, multiple from the base, green, purple in strong sun, branching, mostly glabrous but with a few retrorse or spreading hairs near the base, terete or angled.

Cardamine pensylvanica stem Upper stem.

Cardamine pensylvanica stem Lower stem.

Leaves - Basal leaves few, no rosette present, alternate, petiolate. The largest leaves to +10cm long, 3cm broad, pinnate, with 2-3 pairs of lateral leaflets. Terminal leaflet broader than long on the lowest leaves and becoming more narrow in upper leaves, typically somewhat 3-lobed. All leaflets glabrous, with 3 main veins from the base of the blade (veins visible abaxially). Upper leaves with more lateral leaflets than lower leaves. Leaflets oblanceolate to oblong, entire or with 1-2 lobes, blunt at the tip or with a minute mucro.

Cardamine pensylvanica leaves

Inflorescence - Terminal raceme, compact in flower, quickly elongating in fruit, to +10cm long. Pedicels to 4mm long in flower, to 6mm long in fruit, ascending, glabrous. Axis of inflorescence glabrous.

Flowers - Petals 4, white, glabrous, spreading. Stamens 6, erect. Sepals 4, green, glabrous, with slightly scarious margins, to 1.7mm long, 1mm broad, cupped. Siliques to 2cm long, glabrous, terete, slightly beaked (the beak to 1mm long), many-seeded, elastically dehiscent, 2-valved, erect.

Cardamine pensylvanica flower

Flowering - March - July.

Habitat - Low wet woods, spring branches, base of moist bluffs.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This little species can be found mostly in the lower 2/3 of Missouri in the habitats mentioned above. This species nd another, C. parviflora L. , can be difficult to distinguish. The two plants grow in different habitats. C. pensylvanica grows in moist to wet soils of low areas and C. parviflora prefers drier soils of upland areas. Both plants can be eaten raw or cooked as greens.

Photographs taken in Gainesville, FL., 2-16-03, and off Lee Rd 10, Lee County, AL., 3-2-06.


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 7 Page 466, 482 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Brassicaceae | Cardamine

34. Cardamine pensylvanica Muhlenberg ex Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 486. 1801.

Cardamine flexuosa Withering subsp. pensylvanica (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) O. E. Schulz; C. hirsuta Linnaeus var. pensylvanica (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) P. W. Graff; C. multifolia Rydberg; C. pensylvanica var. brittoniana Farwell; C. rotundifolia Michaux var. diversifolia O. E. Schulz; Dracamine pensylvanica (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Nieuwland

Annuals or biennials; sparsely hirsute basally, glabrous distally. Rhizomes absent. Stems (simple from base), erect, (not flexuous), unbranched or branched distally, (0.5-)1.5-5.5(-7) dm. Basal leaves (soon withered), not rosulate, similar to proximalmost cauline leaves, 4-15 cm. Cauline leaves (3-)5-20(-35), pinnately (5 or) 7-13(-19)-foliolate, sometimes appearing pinnatisect, lobe number similar to leaflets (middle and proximal ones 2-11 cm), petiolate, leaflets petiolulate, subsessile, or sessile; petiole (0.4-)1-3.5(-4.5) cm, base not auriculate, (often sparsely hirsute); lateral leaflets shortly petiolulate or sessile, (decurrent on rachis smaller than terminal, distalmost blades narrower, with fewer lobes or leaflets), margins entire or crenate; terminal leaflet (subsessile or petiolule to 1 cm), blade suborbicular, obovate to oblanceolate, or elliptic, 1.3-3(-4) cm × 6-25 mm, base often cuneate, margins entire, repand, or obscurely 3 or 5-lobed. Racemes ebracteate. Fruiting pedicels divaricate-ascending, (3-)4-10(-13) mm. Flowers: sepals oblong, (1-)1.3-2.3 × 0.5-1 mm, lateral pair not saccate basally; petals white, narrowly spatulate to oblanceolate, 2-3.5(-4) × 0.8-1.5 mm, (not clawed); filaments: median pairs 1.5-2.5 mm, lateral pair 1-2 mm; anthers ovate, 0.2-0.3 mm. Fruits linear, (torulose), (1.4-)1.7-2.7(-3.2) cm × 0.8-1.1 mm; ovules 40-80 per ovary; style 0.5-1 mm. Seeds brown, oblong to ovoid, 0.7-1.1 × 0.5-0.8 mm. 2 n = 32, 64.

Flowering Apr-Jul. Marshes, streams, swamps, ditches, seepage, springs, lake margins, mesic bottomland and upland forests, wet areas, ledges of sheltered bluffs, banks and shallow water of streams and spring branches, margins of crop fields, waste ground; 0-2800 m; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

We have not seen material of Cardamine pensylvanica from Nebraska or South Dakota; it is very likely that the species grows in these states as well.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+pensylvanica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+pensylvanica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Updated: 2018-03-24 16:21:45 gmt
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