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Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.
BLACK BANEBERRY
Black Bugbane; Black Snakeroot; Fairy Candle; Black Cohosh; Actaea racemosa

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Ranunculaceae   Cimicifuga

Cimicifuga racemosa, Black Cohosh
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Cimicifuga racemosa, Black Cohosh

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Cimicifuga racemosa, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cimicifuga racemosa, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Cimicifuga racemosa, leaf - basal or on lower stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cimicifuga racemosa, leaf - basal or on lower stem

Cimicifuga racemosa, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cimicifuga racemosa, stem - showing leaf bases
Cimicifuga racemosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 3
Cimicifuga racemosa

Cimicifuga racemosa
© Copyright Hunter Doughty 2010 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cimicifuga racemosa
© Copyright Hunter Doughty 2010 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa

Cimicifuga racemosa
© Copyright Hunter Doughty 2010 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cimicifuga racemosa
© Copyright Hunter Doughty 2010 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa

Cimicifuga racemosa
© Copyright Hunter Doughty 2010 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cimicifuga racemosa
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa

Cimicifuga racemosa
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cimicifuga racemosa
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa

Cimicifuga racemosa
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cimicifuga racemosa
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 1
Cimicifuga racemosa

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Cyphellaceae  Cyphella villosa @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Mollisia atrata @ BPI (1)
Glomerellaceae  Colletotrichum dematium @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Lachnum caulicolum @ BPI (1)

Lachnum nidulum @ BPI (1)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Leptosphaeria agnita @ BPI (2)

Leptosphaeria ogilviensis @ BPI (1)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia clematidis @ BPI (8)

Puccinia recondita @ BPI (2)

Puccinia rubigo-vera @ BPI (22)
Rhytismataceae  Leptostroma actaeae @ BPI (5)

Leptostroma lineare @ BPI (1)
Urocystaceae  Urocystis carcinodes @ BPI (28)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium cimicifugatum @ BPI (3)
Ustilaginaceae  Ustilago carcinodes @ BPI (1)
_  Ectostroma afflatum @ BPI (2)

Leptothyrium vulgare @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Actaea racemosa L. ( Cimicifuga racemosa ) Black Cohosh
Ranunculaceae — Buttercup family
Native
Actaea racemosa Actaea racemosa
Upper Pike Creek Road
July 2006

More information on this plant, from other sources.


Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ACRA7 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ACRA7
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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Ranunculaceae | Cimicifuga

1. Cimicifuga racemosa (Linnaeus) Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 15. 1818.

Black snakeroot, black cohosh

Actaea racemosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 504. 1753; A . monogyna Walter

Stems 75-250 cm, glabrous. Leaves: petiole angled or ± terete, 15-60 cm, usually not grooved abaxially, glabrous. Leaf blade 2-3-ternately compound; leaflets 20-70; terminal leaflet of central segment ovate to obovate, 3-lobed, 6-15 × 6-16.5 cm, with 3 prominent veins arising basally, base somewhat cuneate to somewhat cordate, margins dentate to deeply dentate-serrate or incised, apex acute to acuminate, surfaces glabrous, abaxially rarely pubescent on veins; other leaflets 4-12 × 3-8 cm. Inflorescences erect panicles of 4-9 wandlike, racemelike branches, 10-60 cm, distally pubescent; bracts 1, subtending pedicel, subulate, 3-4 mm; pedicel 4-10 mm, pubescent, bracteoles absent. Flowers: sepals 4, greenish white; petals (1-)4(-8), white, oblong, ca. 3 mm, clawed; nectary basal; stamens 55-110; filaments 5-10 mm; pistils 1(-2), sessile, ± pubescent; style short, thick; stigma 0.5 mm wide. Follicles 1, sessile, ovoid, ± laterally compressed, 5-10 mm, thick walled. Seeds brown, hemispheric, 3 mm, smooth or ± rough-ridged, without scales. 2 n = 16.

Flowering summer (Jun-Sep). Moist, mixed deciduous forests, wooded slopes, ravines, creek margins, thickets, moist meadowlands, forest margins, and especially mountainous terrain; 0-1500 m; Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., Md., Mass., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

Maine and Vermont specimens probably were planted originally.

Several varieties (A. Gray et al. 1878-1897, vol. 1(1,1), pp. 53-55) or forms (M. L. Fernald 1950) have been named. Specimens with extremely dissected leaves from Connecticut to Delaware and Virginia have been called Cimicifuga racemosa var. dissecta A. Gray, or C . racemosa forma dissecta (A. Gray) Fernald. Of the approximately 2500 specimens of C . racemosa examined, only twelve represent var. dissecta , and only two of those have flowers or fruits. Because of the limited knowledge concerning the dissected-leaf form, and because plants similar to those referred to by Gray and Fernald have not been collected in this century, the form is of uncertain taxonomic significance. Further study is needed.

Native Americans used infusions of plants of Cimicifuga racemosa medicinally to stimulate menstruation, to treat rheumatic pains, coughs and colds, constipation, and kidney trouble, to make babies sleep, and to promote milk flow in women (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Updated: 2017-12-12 20:20:21 gmt
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