- To -2m tall, herbaceous, hirsute to sparsely pubescent, branching.
- Alternate, petiolate, 1.5-5 times longer than broad, to +10cm broad, lanceolate to ovate, serrate, very sparsely pubescent to pubescent, reduced towards apex of stem and becoming sessile. Base of blades abrupt to the petiole.
- Single flower head terminating stem.
- Imbricate. Phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, recurving and merging with receptacle chaff.
- Ligules pinkish-purple, to 8cm long, spreading at first and then slightly reflexed, slightly notched (toothed) at apex.
- Corolla tubular, to 6mm long, deep red to purplish-brown. Achenes to -5mm long. Pappus a small toothed crown. Receptacle conic, with chaff equaling or longer than disk florets.
- May - October.
- Open woodland, low woods.
- Native to U.S.
- The genus is actually named for a small, spiny, omnivorous mammal of Europe, Asia and Africa called the "Hedgehog" (
). The spines of the hedgehog are reminiscent of the receptacle chaff of the plants.
This is a very popular plant for gardening and for medicinal purposes. It grows well from seed and is found in many commercial seed mixes.
Typical plants have purple ray ligules. Plants with white rays can be found in cultivation and very rarely in the wild.
50—120 cm (roots fibrous).
usually hairy (hairs spreading to ascending, to 2 mm), sometimes glabrous.
usually brownish green.
petioles 0—17(—25) cm; blades 3- or 5-nerved, ovate to narrowly lanceolate, 5—30 × (1—)5—12 cm, bases usually rounded to cordate, margins usually serrate to dentate, rarely entire.
linear to lanceolate, 8—17 × 1—8 mm.
paleae 9—15 mm, tips red-orange, straight or slightly curved, sharp-pointed.
pink to purple, laminae spreading to recurved, 30—80 × 7—19 mm, sparsely hairy abaxially.
conic, 14—45 × 20—40 mm.
4.5—5.7 mm, lobes greenish to pink or purple.
off-white, 3.5—5 mm, usually glabrous (ray cypselae sometimes hairy on angles);
ca. 1.2 mm (teeth equal).
Flowering late spring—summer. Rocky, open woods, thickets, prairies, especially near waterways; 10—400+ m; Ont.; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Tenn., Tex., Wis.
is introduced in Ontario. It and cultivars derived from it are extensively grown ornamentals in gardens, wildflower roadside plantings, and prairie restoration sites. Because of its popularity as an herbal remedy, it is also grown commercially. As a result of such activities, naturalized and persisting populations may extend the natural range of
. Selections used for such plantings may differ from native forms.
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