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Echiodon exsilium Rosenblatt, 1961
NOCTURNAL PEARLFISH
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carapidae   Echiodon

Echiodon exsilium
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Echiodon exsilium

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Overview
Main identification features
  • brain dark; dark dots - cheek and behind eye
  • free living
  • fangs at front both jaws
  • with pectorals
Slender, short, cylindrical body, long slender tail; dorsal and anal fins low, confluent with filamentous tail fin; dorsal origin well behind origin of anal; rear margin of top jaw bone not covered by skin; 1-3 large curved fangs at front of top jaw, 1-2 fangs at tip of lower jaw; other jaw teeth small, conical, in multiple rows; 2-3 small fleshy flaps at tip of snout above top lip; gill opening extends above midside; well developed pectoral fin; anus behind pectoral fin.

Transparent, belly white; dark brown around brain; dark dots behind eye, along cheek and upper jaw; speckles along bases of dorsal and anal fins.

Size: 14.2 cm.

Habitat: apparently free living.

Depth: 5-90 m.

Southern Baja and the SW and E Gulf of California to Ecuador; Galapagos and Cocos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 90 m.
Depth Range Min: 5 m.
Diet: zooplankton; pelagic fish eggs.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=29; Southern limit=-2; Western limit=-113; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=31; Longitudinal range=35.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Sand & gravel; Mud; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 14.2 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versiˇn 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .á Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservaciˇn Internacional.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Markle , D.F. and Olney, J.E., 1990., Systematics of the Pearlfishes (Pisces: Carapidae)., Bull. Mar. Sci., 47:269-410.
  • Rosenblatt, R.H., 1961., A new pearlfish (Family Carapidae) from the Gulf of California., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 74:207-212.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, MÚxico., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Williams, J.T., 1984., Studies on Echiodon (Pisces: Carapidae), with description of two new Indo-Pacific species., Copeia, 1984:410-422.
  • Williams, J.T., 1984., Synopsis and phylogenetic analysis of the pearlfish subfamily Carapinae (Pisces: Carapidae)., Bull. Mar. Sci., 34:386-397.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Echiodon exsilium   Rosenblatt , 1961

Nocturnal pearlfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Echiodon exsilium   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Echiodon exsilium (Nocturnal pearlfish) Echiodon exsilium
No image available for this species;
drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes (Cusk eels) > Carapidae (Pearlfishes) > Carapinae
Etymology: Echiodon: Greek, echieys, eos = a little viper + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335 ) .   More on author: Rosenblatt .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 64 - 75 m (Ref. 36487 ).   Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Baja California Sur, Mexico to Panama (Ref. 36487 ), including the Gulf of California and the Galapagos Islands.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6347 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 38-42; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 47 - 50; Vertebrae : 130. Eel-like, shallow body depth; 1 to several symphyseal fangs on dentary and premaxilla; lacking cardiform teeth, pelvic fins, and swim bladder rocker bone; a patch of ridges posteriorly on the ventral surface of the swim bladder (Ref. 34024 ). Precaudal vertebrae 21-25 (Ref. 34024 ). Branchiostegal rays: 7 (Ref. 36487 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Uncommon species (Ref. 34024 ). Free-living adults are found on the outer shelf, usually deeper than 64 m over muddy sand bottoms (Ref. 36487 ). Oviparous, with specialized vexillifer planktonic larval stage, and benthic tenuis larval stage (Ref. 36487 ). Maximum depth from Ref. 58018.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, with specialized vexillifer planktonic stage larva, and benthic tenuis stage larva (Ref. 36487 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins , 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest FAO(Publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

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Ecology
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Length-weight
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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 14.6 - 20.3, mean 17.1 (based on 6 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  . Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .

Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily Modified by Orta├▒ez, Auda Kareen Fish Forum
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