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Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.
AMERICAN BEECH
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Fagaceae   Fagus

Fagus grandifolia
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Fagus grandifolia

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Fagus grandifolia, twig - winter overall
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, twig - winter overall
Fagus grandifolia, twig - close-up winter terminal bud
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, twig - close-up winter terminal bud

Fagus grandifolia, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, bark - of a large tree
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified

Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified

Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - male

Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - male
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, inflorescence - whole - male

Fagus grandifolia, fruit - section or open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, fruit - section or open
Fagus grandifolia, fruit - immature
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, fruit - immature

Fagus grandifolia, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Fagus grandifolia, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Fagus grandifolia, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
_  tree @ I_EHLK (3)

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Achilidae  Synecdoche impunctata @ UDCC_TCN (1)
Andrenidae  Andrena carlini @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Andrena rugosa @ CUIC_ENT (2)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella capillifera @ BPI (1)

Ceratostomella pluriannulata @ BPI (5)
Aphididae  Drepanaphis carolinensis @ NCSU_ENT (2)

Longistigma caryae @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Phyllaphis fagi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phyllaphis grandifoliae @ NCSU (11)

Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (1)
Aporpiaceae  Aporpium caryae @ BPI (1)
Arthoniaceae  Arthonia anglica @ I_GBP (1)

Arthonia rubella @ I_GBP (2)

Arthonia @ GAL (1)
Ascodichaenaceae  Dichaena faginea @ BPI (16)
Bertiaceae  Bertia moriformis @ BPI (3)
Bionectriaceae  Dendrodochium compressum @ BPI (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria corticola @ BPI (1)

Botryosphaeria stevensii @ BPI (1)

Botryosphaeria @ BPI (1)

Fusicoccum guttulatum @ BPI (2)

Phyllosticta faginea @ BPI (1)

Sphaeropsis malorum @ BPI (1)
Bulgariaceae  Bulgaria rufa @ BPI (2)
Capnodiaceae  Scorias spongiosa @ BPI (7)
Ceratocystidaceae  Ceratocystis grandifoliae @ BPI (1)
Cercopidae  Clastoptera xanthocephala @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Chionosphaeraceae  Stilbum glomerulisporum @ 876004A (1)
Cicadellidae  Alebra aurea @ MEMU_ENT (5)

Alebra eburnea @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Erasmoneura nigra @ III (1)

Eratoneura acantha @ III (1)

Eratoneura aculeata @ III (3)

Eratoneura adunca @ III (13); AMNH_IZC (3)

Eratoneura arta @ III (1)

Eratoneura ballista @ III (1)

Eratoneura bispinosa @ III (1)

Eratoneura brevipes @ III (1)

Eratoneura carmini @ III (9)

Eratoneura dira @ III (2)

Eratoneura eversi @ III (1)

Eratoneura flexibilis @ III (1)

Eratoneura gemina @ III (6); AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura incondita @ III (1)

Eratoneura longa @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura maculata @ III (1)

Eratoneura maga @ III (1)

Eratoneura manus @ III (1)

Eratoneura mira @ III (1)

Eratoneura misera @ III (1)

Eratoneura nimia @ III (17); AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura osborni @ III (2)

Eratoneura pamelae @ AMNH_IZC (1); III (3)

Eratoneura penesica @ III (1)

Eratoneura richardsi @ III (1)

Eratoneura spala @ III (2)

Eratoneura spinifera @ III (1)

Eratoneura stannardi @ III (1)

Eratoneura tersa @ III (1)

Eratoneura torella @ III (1)

Eratoneura triangulata @ III (1)

Eratoneura uncinata @ III (1)

Erythridula abolla @ III (1)

Erythridula aspera @ III (1)

Erythridula cruciformis @ III (2)

Erythridula eluta @ III (1)

Erythridula hamata @ III (1)

Erythridula herberti @ III (1)

Erythridula lemnisca @ III (1)

Erythridula modica @ III (2)

Erythridula nitida @ III (1)

Erythridula obliqua @ III (2)

Erythridula parsonsi @ III (1)

Erythridula penelutea @ III (1)

Erythridula praecisa @ III (1)

Erythridula stolata @ III (11)

Erythridula tenebrosa @ III (10)

Erythridula tenuispica @ III (5)

Erythridula tridens @ III (1)

Erythridula ulmosa @ III (2)

Erythridula volucris @ III (2)

Erythroneura octonotata @ III (1)

Erythroneura vaga @ III (1)

Graphocephala fennahi @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium arachnoideum @ BPI (2)

Corticium atrovirens @ BPI (1)

Corticium botryoideum @ BPI (1)

Corticium laeve @ BPI (1)

Corticium sulphureum @ BPI (1)

Corticium tuberculatum @ BPI (1)

Dendrothele alliacea @ BPI (1)
Cortinariaceae  Crepidotus versutus @ BPI (1)
Corynidae  Coryne sarcoides @ BPI (3)
Cryphonectriaceae  Endothia gyrosa @ BPI (5)
Cystostereaceae  Cystostereum murrayi @ BPI (1)
Derbidae  Anotia fitchi @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Apache degeeri @ UDCC_TCN (4)

Cedusa @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Otiocerus coquebertii @ UDCC_TCN (2)
Dermateaceae  Gloeosporium fagi @ BPI (1)

Gloeosporium fagicola @ BPI (1)

Pezicula @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe fagi @ BPI (2)

Phomopsis @ BPI (2)
Diatrypaceae  Anthostoma turgidum @ BPI (1)

Diatrype disciformis @ BPI (1)

Diatrype stigma @ BPI (7)

Diatrype virescens @ BPI (24)

Diatrype @ BPI (2)

Diatrypella favacea @ BPI (1)

Diatrypella quercina @ BPI (1)

Diatrypella tocciaeana @ BPI (1)

Eutypa spinosa @ BPI (2)

Libertella betulina @ BPI (3)

Libertella faginea @ BPI (19)

Quaternaria persoonii @ BPI (2)

Quaternaria quaternata @ BPI (1)
Entolomataceae  Claudopus nidulans @ BPI (1)
Eriococcidae  Cryptococcus fagisuga @ CSCA_TCN (8)
Erysiphaceae  Microsphaera alni @ BPI (1)

Microsphaera erineophila @ BPI (4)

Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (4)
Exidiaceae  Exidia glandulosa @ BPI (6)

Exidia nucleata @ BPI (1)

Guepinia spathularia @ BPI (1)
Filobasidiaceae  Cryptococcus fagi @ 864505B (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (4)

Daedalea extensa @ BPI (1)

Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (13)
Gnomoniaceae  Cryptodiaporthe galericulata @ BPI (3)

Gnomonia @ BPI (2)

Ophiognomonia setacea @ BPI (2)
Graphidaceae  Graphis lineola @ GAL (1)

Graphis scripta @ I_GBP (6)

Phaeographis @ GAL (1)
Hapalopilaceae  Bjerkandera adusta @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium @ BPI (1)

Chlorociboria aeruginascens @ BPI (2)

Chlorociboria aeruginosa @ BPI (1)

Chlorociboria versiformis @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus pulveraceus @ BPI (2)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum coralloides @ BPI (6)

Hydnum septentrionale @ BPI (2)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete agglutinans @ BPI (5)

Hymenochaete cinnamomea @ BPI (2)

Hymenochaete corrugata @ BPI (11)

Hymenochaete fuliginosa @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete spreta @ BPI (6)

Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (9)

Inonotus cuticularis @ BPI (2)

Inonotus glomeratus @ BPI (1)
Hyphodermataceae  Aegerita lutescens @ BPI (1)

Hyphoderma setigerum @ BPI (1)
Hypocreaceae  Hypocrea citrina @ BPI (2)

Hypocrea gelatinosa @ BPI (3)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterium hyalinum @ BPI (3)

Hysterium @ BPI (1)

Hysterographium mori @ BPI (2)
Issidae  Thionia bullata @ UDCC_TCN (2)
Lachnocladiaceae  Scytinostroma galactinum @ BPI (1)
Leotiaceae  Leotia lubrica @ BPI (1)
Marasmiaceae  Marasmius rotula @ BPI (1)

Merismodes fasciculatus @ BPI (1)

Physalacria inflata @ BPI (1)
Margarodidae  Xylococculus betulae @ CSCA_TCN (3)
Melanommataceae  Melanomma pulvis-pyrius @ BPI (4)
Membracidae  Ophiderma definita @ NCSU (2)
Meruliaceae  Mycoleptodon ochraceus @ BPI (1)

Phlebia albida @ BPI (1)

Phlebia radiata @ BPI (13)
Miridae  Deraeocoris quercicola @ NCSU (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp11 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Paraproba capitata @ NCSU_ENT (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella punctiformis @ BPI (3)
Nectriaceae  Ciliciopodium magnusii @ BPI (1)

Nectria cinnabarina @ BPI (24)

Nectria coccinea @ 747189B (1); BPI (67); 747189A (1); 864505C (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (7)

Nectria galligena @ 550546B (1); BPI (67); 550546A (1)

Nectria gliocladioides @ BPI (1)

Nectria ochroleuca @ BPI (1)

Nectria @ BPI (7)

Neonectria discophora @ BPI (1)

Neonectria ditissima @ BPI (5)

Neonectria faginata @ BPI (11)

Neonectria veuillotiana @ BPI (1)

Neonectria @ BPI (3)

Tubercularia nigricans @ BPI (1)

Tubercularia vulgaris @ BPI (4)
Odontasteridae  Asterodon ferruginosus @ BPI (3)
Papilionidae  Graphium album @ BPI (9)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (4)

Peniophora cremea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora pulverulenta @ BPI (1)

Peniophora viticola @ BPI (4)
Pertusariaceae  Pertusaria macounii @ GAL (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Ceraceomyces americanus @ BPI (1)

Phanerochaete filamentosa @ BPI (2)

Phanerochaete velutina @ BPI (1)
Physciaceae  Heterodermia albicans @ GAL (1)

Pyxine eschweileri @ GAL (1)
Pleurostomataceae  Pleurostoma candollei @ BPI (1)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus serotinus @ BPI (4)
Pluteaceae  Pluteus admirabilis @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Coriolus pubescens @ BPI (1)

Favolus alveolaris @ BPI (2)

Favolus alveolarius @ BPI (29)

Fomes applanatus @ BPI (11)

Fomes conchatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes connatus @ BPI (2)

Fomes everhartii @ BPI (1)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (17)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (23)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (10)

Lentinus cochleatus @ BPI (1)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (16)

Lenzites trabea @ BPI (2)

Panus rudis @ BPI (6)

Panus stipticus @ BPI (6)

Panus torulosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (18)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (14)

Polyporus alutaceus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus arcularius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus biformis @ BPI (10)

Polyporus brumalis @ BPI (11)

Polyporus caesius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (5)

Polyporus cuticularis @ BPI (3)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (16)

Polyporus dryophilus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fagicola @ BPI (6)

Polyporus floriformis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fractipes @ BPI (2)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (5)

Polyporus glomeratus @ BPI (16)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (17)

Polyporus nidulans @ BPI (4)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (7)

Polyporus perplexus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (4)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (17)

Polyporus radiatus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus resinosus @ BPI (13)

Polyporus sanguineus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus semipileatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus semisupinus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus tephroleucus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus undosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus varius @ BPI (2)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (22)

Poria aestivalis @ BPI (2)

Poria corticola @ BPI (2)

Poria eupora @ BPI (1)

Poria ferrea @ BPI (1)

Poria ferruginosa @ BPI (8)

Poria laevigata @ BPI (1)

Poria medulla-panis @ BPI (2)

Poria nigrescens @ BPI (3)

Poria pannocincta @ BPI (1)

Poria semitincta @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (6)

Poria tenuis @ BPI (1)

Poria unita @ BPI (1)

Poria versipora @ BPI (1)

Poria viticola @ BPI (1)

Trametes malicola @ BPI (1)

Trametes mollis @ BPI (2)

Trametes sepium @ BPI (1)
Porinaceae  Porina heterospora @ GAL (1)

Pseudosagedia cestrensis @ I_GBP (1)
Pyrenulaceae  Pyrenula pseudobufonia @ I_GBP (2)

Pyrenula punctella @ GAL (1)

Pyrenula subelliptica @ I_GBP (4)
Pyronemataceae  Humaria hemisphaerica @ BPI (4)

Humaria scutellata @ BPI (4)

Humaria setosa @ BPI (1)
Reticulariaceae  Lycogala epidendrum @ BPI (1)
Rhytismataceae  Propolis faginea @ BPI (3)

Propolis versicolor @ BPI (2)
Roccellaceae  Opegrapha viridis @ I_GBP (2)
Sarcosomataceae  Conoplea sphaerica @ BPI (1)

Plectania coccinea @ BPI (1)

Strumella coryneoidea @ BPI (4)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (4)
Sistotremataceae  Sistotrema coronilla @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex cinnamomeus @ BPI (2)

Irpex deformis @ BPI (1)

Odontia crustosa @ BPI (1)

Steccherinum fimbriatum @ BPI (1)

Steccherinum ochraceum @ BPI (6)

Steccherinum septentrionale @ BPI (6)
Stereaceae  Gloeocystidiellum clavuligerum @ BPI (1)

Stereum complicatum @ BPI (5)

Stereum fasciatum @ BPI (9)

Stereum gausapatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum hirsutum @ BPI (2)

Stereum lobatum @ BPI (2)

Stereum murrayi @ BPI (9)

Stereum ochraceoflavum @ BPI (1)

Stereum ostrea @ BPI (1)

Stereum purpureum @ BPI (2)

Stereum rameale @ BPI (1)

Stereum roseocarneum @ BPI (2)

Stereum rugosum @ BPI (2)

Stereum striatum @ BPI (1)

Vesiculomyces citrinus @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Pholiota squarrosoides @ BPI (2)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina @ BPI (1)
Thelotremataceae  Nadvornikia sorediata @ I_GBP (1)

Thelotrema subtile @ I_GBP (1)
Tremellaceae  Hormomyces fragiformis @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium albopunctum @ BPI (1)

Helotium citrinum @ BPI (6)

Trogia crispa @ BPI (3)
Trypetheliaceae  Trypethelium virens @ I_GBP (1)
Tulasnellaceae  Tulasnella violea @ BPI (3)
Valsaceae  Cytospora leucostoma @ BPI (1)

Cytospora pustulata @ BPI (3)

Cytospora @ BPI (1)

Radulum spathulatum @ BPI (1)

Valsa ambiens @ BPI (1)

Valsa quaternata @ BPI (4)

Valsa @ BPI (1)
Venturiaceae  Venturia fagi @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia vernicosa @ BPI (3)

Hypoxylon atropunctatum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon coccineum @ 587629B (1); BPI (5); 587629A (1)

Hypoxylon cohaerens @ BPI (23)

Hypoxylon fragiforme @ BPI (22)

Hypoxylon fuscum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon howeianum @ BPI (3)

Hypoxylon mammatum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon rubiginosum @ BPI (6)

Hypoxylon truncatum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon @ BPI (2)

Nummularia tubulina @ BPI (1)

Rosellinia ligniaria @ BPI (1)

Xylaria hypoxylon @ BPI (1)

Xylaria longipes @ BPI (2)

Xylaria polymorpha @ BPI (3)

Xylaria @ BPI (1)
_  Asterosporium asterospermum @ 746775B (1); 746775A (1); 746775C (1)

Asterosporium hoffmannii @ BPI (5)

Endobotrya elegans @ 375639A (1); 375639B (1)

Gliomastix musicola @ BPI (1)

Gonatorrhodiella highlei @ BPI (1); 864505A (1)

Gonatorrhodiella trigemina @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus fumosus @ BPI (1)

Porothelium fimbriatum @ BPI (2)

Psilospora faginea @ BPI (3)

Streptothrix atra @ BPI (3)

Streptothrix fusca @ BPI (1)

Thyrsidium botryosporum @ BPI (1)

Thyrsidium stilbosporoides @ BPI (2)

Ustulina vulgaris @ BPI (11)

Valsaria exasperans @ BPI (7)

Valsaria insitiva @ BPI (1)

Valsaria quadrata @ BPI (2)

lichen @ I_JP (3)

moth @ I_GBP (1)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Fagaceae | Fagus

1. Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart, Beitr. Naturk. 3: 22. 1788.

American beech, hêtre américain

Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana (Loudon) Fernald & Rehder

Trees , to 20(-30) m. Bark gray, smooth. Twigs glabrous at maturity, or with scattered, straight, silky, simple hairs, prominent ringlike bud scale scars at beginning of each year's growth. Buds narrowly fusiform, to 15-20 mm, apex acute, scales few, silky light brown or glabrous. Leaves: petiole 4-12 mm. Leaf blade ovate or narrowly ovate, rarely obovate, 60-120 × 25-75 mm, base cuneate or subacute, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially with scattered straight silky hairs, these often concentrated on midrib, occasionally glabrous or much more villous. Fruits: cupule brown to reddish brown, 15-20(-25) mm, opening at maturity to reveal nuts; nut 15-20 × 10-18 mm wide, glabrous or puberulent, often hollow even when full-sized.

Flowering spring (Apr-Jun). Rich woods, deciduous forest and mixed broadleaf-conifer forest; 0-1000 m; N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ark., Ala., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

A. J. Rehder (1907) argued for recognition of a southern variety ( Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana ) of this somewhat variable species. The northern populations in general are characterized by cupules with denser, longer prickles, somewhat narrower leaves with a greater proportion of cuneate leaf bases, and larger fruits that exceed the cupules slightly. Others (e.g., W. H. Camp 1951) have suggested the existence of three races within United States F . grandifolia , often referred to as gray beech, red beech, and white beech. I follow J. W. Hardin and G. P. Johnson (1985) and others in not recognizing subspecific or varietal variation within eastern United States F . grandifolia . Examination of material over the geographic range of the species suggests that this variation is broadly clinal and can only be demonstrated statistically, with much variation indicative of the other races within most populations. It seems a matter of taste as to whether such variation be recognized with infraspecific names. In addition, forms with more densely pubescent leaves occur locally in both the north and south; they have been formally recognized by some authors. Clearly, additional taxonomic work on variation in F . grandifolia is desirable; it is possible that other characters that could adequately delimit subgeneric/varietal taxa might yet be identified.

Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus, the European Beech, is cultivated in temperate eastern North America and to a lesser extent in western United States and Canada. Escapes are to be expected. Various cultivars are known, particularly purple-leaf, tricolor-leaf, and cut-leaf forms. When encountered, F . s ylvatica is easily distinguished from F . grandifolia by the crenate leaf margin (without distinct teeth) and the softer, less stout, less reflexed spines of the cupule of F . sylvatica .

Native Americans used various preparations from plants of Fagus sylvatica medicinally for worms, consumption, chancre, and heart trouble, to purify the blood, as a poultice for burns and scalds, and as a wash for poison ivy (D. E. Moerman 1986).

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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Fagus+grandifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Fagus+grandifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 501 Protocol scheme 'https' is not supported (LWP::Protocol::https not installed) https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Fagus+grandifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

Updated: 2017-11-23 15:44:27 gmt
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