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Magnolia virginiana L.
SWEETBAY
Swampbay; Sweetbay Magnolia

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Magnoliaceae   Magnolia

Magnolia virginiana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia virginiana

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Magnolia virginiana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia virginiana

Magnolia virginiana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Magnolia virginiana

Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - close-up of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - close-up of flower interior

Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - close-up of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - close-up of flower interior
Magnolia virginiana, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, leaf - whole upper surface

Magnolia virginiana, twig - winter overall
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, twig - winter overall
Magnolia virginiana, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, bark - of a large tree

Magnolia virginiana, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, whole tree or vine - general
Magnolia virginiana, fruit - immature
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, fruit - immature

Magnolia virginiana, fruit - section or open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, fruit - section or open
Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia virginiana, inflorescence - lateral view of flower

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aleyrodidae  Aleuroplatus magnoliae @ CSCA_TCN (3)
Aphididae  Illinoia ( @ NCSU_ENT (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria ribis @ BPI (1)

Guignardia magnoliae @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta glauca @ BPI (14)

Phyllosticta magnoliae @ BPI (8)
Coccocarpiaceae  Coccocarpia stellata @ GAL (1)
Collemataceae  Leptogium austroamericanum @ GAL (1)
Cordycipitaceae  Isaria flabelliformis @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Acutaspis perseae @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Aspidiotus comstocki @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype asterostoma @ BPI (3)

Diatrype disciformis @ BPI (1)

Diatrype tremellophora @ BPI (1)

Diatrype virescens @ BPI (1)
Didymosphaeriaceae  Didymosphaeria magnoliae @ BPI (1)
Ellipsolagenidae  Fissurina @ GAL (1)
Glomerellaceae  Glomerella cingulata @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Gnomonia magnoliae @ BPI (2)

Laestadia magnoliae @ BPI (2)
Graphidaceae  Graphina xylophaga @ GAL (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus albopileata @ BPI (1)
Hypocreaceae  Hypocrea minima @ BPI (1)
Meliolaceae  Meliola magnoliae @ BPI (35); 694873A (1); 694853A (1); 694853B (1); 694873B (1)

Meliola @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Dampierella schwartzi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp1 sp_005 @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Gn_orthotylinigp2 sp_007 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp4 sp_035 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp4c sp_nsp_004 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp7 sp_nsp_002 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp9 sp_004 @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Goodeniaphila cassisi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Myrtlemiris russulatus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthotylus sp_ms_notodytikos @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella magnoliae @ BPI (2)

Mycosphaerella milleri @ BPI (1)
Nitschkiaceae  Fracchiaea heterogenea @ BPI (1)
Parmeliaceae  Usnea mutabilis @ GAL (1)
Patellariaceae  Tryblidiella rufula @ BPI (1)
Pertusariaceae  Pertusaria amara @ GAL (1)

Pertusaria pulchella @ GAL (1)
Physciaceae  Dirinaria confusa @ I_GBP (1)

Heterodermia crocea @ GAL (1)

Pyxine subcinerea @ GAL (1)
Piesmatidae  Mcateella schuhi @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes marmoratus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus mowryanus @ BPI (2)

Poria alachuana @ BPI (1)

Poria versipora @ BPI (1)
Ramalinaceae  Phyllopsora isidiolyta @ GAL (1)

Phyllopsora parvifolia @ GAL (1)
Reduviidae  Zelus longipes @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Roccellaceae  Syncesia @ GAL (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Sclerotinia gracilipes @ BPI (3)
Septobasidiaceae  Septobasidium castaneum @ BPI (1)

Septobasidium curtisii @ BPI (1)

Septobasidium langloisii @ BPI (7)

Septobasidium leprieurii @ BPI (4)

Septobasidium pseudopedicellatum @ BPI (1)

Septobasidium sinuosum @ BPI (2)

Septobasidium tenue @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora ceratophora @ BPI (1)
_  Camarosporium magnoliae @ BPI (1)

Dimerosporium magnoliae @ BPI (2)

Sporidesmium rude @ BPI (1)

Valsaria insitiva @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from US Forest Service
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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
   
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAVI2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAVI2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAVI2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=MAVI2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=MAVI2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=MAVI2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Magnolia virginiana L.
sweetbay

Image of Magnolia virginiana

General Information
Symbol: MAVI2
Group: Dicot
Family: Magnoliaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Tree
Native Status : L48   N
Characteristics
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Magnolia thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, MO, Saint Louis, Missouri Botanical Garden. October 14, 2002. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, MO, Saint Louis, Missouri Botanical Garden. October 14, 2002. Usage Requirements .

Clarence A. Rechenthin. Provided by USDA NRCS East Texas PMC (ETPMC) . Usage Requirements .

Clarence A. Rechenthin. Provided by USDA NRCS East Texas PMC (ETPMC) . Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, LA, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge, Hilltop Arboretum. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, LA, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge, Hilltop Arboretum. Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, DC, Washington. Usage Requirements .

©Elaine Haug. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany . United States, VA, Alexandria, Dyke Marsh. Usage Requirements .

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden . United States, LA. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, FL. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 82. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
MAVIA2 Magnolia virginiana L. var. australis Sarg.
MAVIP Magnolia virginiana L. var. parva Ashe

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Magnoliidae
Order Magnoliales
Family Magnoliaceae – Magnolia family
Genus Magnolia L. – magnolia
Species Magnolia virginiana L. – sweetbay

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Massachusetts sweetbay magnolia Endangered
New York sweetbay magnolia Endangered
Pennsylvania sweet bay magnolia Threatened
Tennessee sweetbay magnolia Threatened

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACW
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACW
Great Plains OBL
Northcentral & Northeast FACW

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (MAVI2)
CalPhotos (MAVI2)
Flora of North America (MAVI2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (MAVI2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (MAVIA2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (MAVIP)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (MAVI2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (MAVI2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (MAVI2)
Native Plants Network (MAVI2)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (MAVI2)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (MAVI2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (MAVI2)
Related Websites
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (MAVI2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Yarrow Low Low Low

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Yarrow

Sources

Yarrow, G.K., and D.T. Yarrow. 1999. Managing wildlife . Sweet Water Press. Birmingham.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Magnoliaceae | Magnolia

6. Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 535. 1753.

Sweet-bay, swamp-bay, laurier doux

Magnolia australis Ashe; M. australis var. parva (Ashe) Ashe; M. fragrans Rafinesque 1817, not Salisbury 1796; M. glauca (Linnaeus) Linnaeus; M. glauca var. pumila Nuttall; M. virginiana subsp. australis (Sargent) E. Murray; M. virginiana var. australis Sargent; M. virginiana var . glauca Linnaeus; M. virginiana var. grisea Linnaeus; M. virginiana var. parva Ashe

Shrubs or small trees , evergreen to partly evergreen or deciduous, multitrunked to 10m, or single-trunked to 28 m. Bark dark gray, smooth. Pith diaphragmed. Twigs and foliar buds silky-pubescent, sometimes glabrous. Leaves distinctly alternate, not in terminal whorl-like clusters; stipules 3-5.5(-6) × 0.3-0.5 cm, abaxially brownish puberulent, red-glandular. Leaf blade oblong to elliptic, ovate to obovate, 6-22 × 2.6-7 cm, somewhat leathery, base cuneate, apex obtuse to acute or rounded to somewhat acuminate; surfaces abaxially chalky white to glaucous, glabrous or densely silky-pubescent, adaxially dull green to lustrous. Flowers fragrant, 5-8 cm across; spathaceous bracts 2, outer bract abaxially silky-pubescent, inner bract nearly glabrous, red-glandular; tepals creamy white, red-glandular, outermost segments reflexed, greenish; stamens (32-)63-90(-102), 5.5-11 mm; filaments white; pistils (9-)19-33(-50). Follicetums ellipsoid to nearly globose, 2-5.5 × 1.5-3 cm; follicles short-beaked, glabrous. Seeds somewhat globose to lenticular, 5 mm, aril red. 2 n =38.

Flowering spring. Swamps, bays, low wet woods, savannahs; chiefly in coastal plain and lower piedmont; 0-540 m; Ala., Ark., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Mass., Miss., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va.

The most widely distributed species of Magnolia in the flora, M. virginiana occurs in two growth forms: deciduous and often multitrunked northward, and typically single-trunked and evergreen in the southern range. Where these forms overlap geographically in North Carolina and adjacent areas, intergradation occurs, and the identification of these intergrades is difficult, if not impossible. It has been impossible to pinpoint their occurrence in the zone of overlap. Herbarium specimens cannot be trusted to resolve this dilemma. Both filiform and flagelliform trichomes occur on the leaves, but these are without taxonomic significance. Some investigators have treated these habital variants as geographic varieties or as subspecies, but infraspecific taxa are not recognized here. Without other defining characteristics and no clear geographic correlation, infraspecific taxa have little significance or taxonomic value in M. virginiana . A thorough field study is needed to clarify the taxonomy of this otherwise well-known plant.

Magnolia virginiana is widely cultivated. It was the first magnolia known in Europe, dating from 1688 in England. A few cultivars of both the deciduous and evergreen forms are now grown in cultivation. Magnolia virginiana is a parent of several hybrids, including the first known magnolia hybrid, M .× thompsoniana (Loudon) C. de Vos (= M. virginiana × M. tripetala ), dating to 1808. Other hybrids include the so-called Freeman hybrids of M. grandiflora × M. virginiana and M. virginiana × M. hypoleuca with its cultivar 'Nimbus'.

The largest known tree of Magnolia virginiana (the evergreen form), 28m in height with a trunk diameter of 1.4m, is recorded from Union County, Arkansas (American Forestry Association 1994).

The Houma and Rappahannock tribes used decoctions of leaves, twigs, and bark of Magnolia virginiana to treat colds and chills, to warm the blood, and as a hallucinogen (D.E. Moerman 1986).

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Magnolia+virginiana&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Magnolia+virginiana&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 2
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Magnolia virginiana%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
Sweet Bay
ID: 0000 0000 1205 0900 [detail]
© 2005 John B. Nelson

Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
ID: 0000 0000 1216 0961 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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