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Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758)
EUROPEAN HAKE
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Merlucciidae   Merluccius


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Merluccius&speciesname=merluccius ---> http://www.fishbase.se/summary/Merluccius-merluccius.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Merluccius merluccius   (Linnaeus, 1758)

European hake Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map
Merluccius merluccius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Stamps, Coins | Google image Image of Merluccius merluccius (European hake) Merluccius merluccius
Picture by Svensen, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 1075 m (Ref. 58452 ), usually 70 - 400 m (Ref. 35388 ).   Temperate; 76°N - 18°N, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 58452 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 42.8 , range 20 - 70 cm
Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371 ); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371 ); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 1371 ); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 35388 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 43-51; Anal soft rays : 36 - 40. Inside of mouth and branchial cavity black. Second dorsal and anal fins notched. First vertebra and neural spine attached to skull. Vertebrae 50-52.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found usually between 70 and 370 m depth. Adults live close to the bottom during day-time, but move off-bottom at night. Adults feed mainly on fish (small hakes, anchovies, pilchard, herrings, cod fishes, sardines and gadoid species) and squids. The young feed on crustaceans (especially euphausiids and amphipods). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846 ). Almost entirely marketed fresh, whole or filleted, to specialized restaurants or retail markets (Ref. 58452 ). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988 ). Stocks seem to be over-fished (Ref. 35388 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Continuous recruitment of oocytes connotes indeterminate fecundity for this species (Ref. 79799 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba , 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 94142 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Bio-Quiz | E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00415 - 0.00527), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.07-0.3; tmax=20; Fecundity=7 million). Prior r = 0.46, 2 SD range = 0.22 - 0.95, log(r) = -0.78, SD log(r) = 0.37, Based on: 3 M, 76 K, 24 tgen, 7 tmax, 38 Fec records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen Fish Forum
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