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Monarda fistulosa L.
WILD BERGAMOT
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Lamiaceae   Monarda

Monarda fistulosa, Bee-balm
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Monarda fistulosa, Bee-balm

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Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Pseudopanurgus parvus @ AMNH_BEE (7)
Aphididae  Aphis ( @ CSUC_TCN (2); NCSU_ENT (17)
Apidae  Anthophora terminalis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Bombus affinis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Bombus appositus @ BBSL (1); AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus borealis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus centralis @ BBSL (2)

Bombus citrinus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus fervidus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus griseocollis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Bombus mixtus @ BBSL (1)

Bombus pensylvanicus @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Bombus rufocinctus @ BBSL (2)

Bombus ternarius @ BBSL (2); AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus terricola @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus vagans @ AMNH_BEE (1); BBSL (18)

Melissodes bimaculata @ AMNH_BEE (1); BBSL (2)
Cicadellidae  Empoasca erigeron @ III (1)

Empoasca fabae @ III (1)

Empoasca radiata @ III (7)
Coccinellidae  Coccinella septempunctata @ I_LB (1)

Hippodamia convergens @ I_LB (2)
Erysiphaceae  Erysiphe cichoracearum @ BPI (3)
Halictidae  Augochlorella striata @ BBSL (1)

Dufourea monardae @ CUIC_ENT (3); BBSL (5); AMNH_BEE (7)

Lasioglossum anomalum @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Lasioglossum laevissimum @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Lasioglossum leucocomum @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Megachilidae  Heriades carinata @ CUIC_ENT (1); AMNH_BEE (2)

Heriades carinatus @ BBSL (3)

Hoplitis producta @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Osmia tristella @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Ramularia variata @ BPI (7)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia menthae @ 084199A (1); 084199B (1); BPI (250)
Reduviidae  Reduvius sonoraensis @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Synchytriaceae  Synchytrium holwayi @ BPI (15)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium menthae @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
   Top | See original


Monarda fistulosa L.

Monarda fistulosa plant

Family - Lamiaceae

Stems - To 1.5m tall, dichotomously branching above, from fibrous roots or slender rhizomes, stout, erect, 4-angled, green to purple (in strong sun), hollow, often glaucous, glabrous or sparse pubescent (especially at the nodes), fragrant.

Monarda fistulosa stem

Leaves - Opposite, decussate, petiolate. Petiole to +/-4cm long, puberulent, with adaxial groove (pubescent in groove), purple. Blade to +10cm long, 6cm broad, scabrous above, punctate, tomentoulose on veins and midrib below, truncate to subcordate at base, serrate, acuminate, fragrant.

Monarda fistulosa leaves

Inflorescence - Single terminal capitate cluster of +/-75 flowers. Flowers on pedicels to 1mm long. Pedicels tomentoulose. Clusters subtended by involucre of whorled foliaceous bracts.

Monarda fistulosa inflorescence Bracts subtending the inflorescence.

Monarda fistulosa inflorescence

Flowers - Corolla bilabiate, pink. Corolla tube to -2cm long, contracted and white at base in calyx tube, pink above and tomentoulose. Upper lip to 1.5cm long, folding around stamens and style, reflexed with age, pubescent externally with long cilia at apex, glabrous internally. Lower lip to 1.7cm long, with central linear lobe (notched at apex), glabrous internally, pubescent externally. Stamens 2, adnate at apex of corolla tube, exserted from upper lip of corolla. Filaments to 1.4cm long, white, glabrous. Anthers 2mm broad, with brown-purple margin. Style to +3cm long, white below, pinkish-purple at apex, pubescent. Stigma unequally two lobed. Ovary of 4 nutlets. Nutlets to 2mm long in fruit, blackish. Calyx tube to 1cm long, -2mm in diameter, 5-lobed, puberulent, 13-ribbed (nerved). Lobes linear-attenuate, 1.1mm long, dark purple, with spreading cilia on outer margin between lobes and dense erect cilia on margin internally.

Monarda fistulosa flowers Flowers close-up.

Flowering - May - August.

Habitat - Prairies, fields, open rocky woods, glade margins, thickets, roadsides, railroads.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This striking species can be found throughout Missouri but is apparently absent in the extreme southeastern section of the state. It is an easy species to ID in the field. The brilliant, dense flower heads and pleasant fragrance make the plant a perennial favorite, literally. The plant is a big favorite among butterfly gardeners and is widely cultivated. It grows easily from seed.
The leaves have been used traditionally as medicine but today are used to flavor teas. The flowers can be used to dress up a salad or garnish a meal.
The species is sometimes broken up into different varieties but these integrate so I won't mention them.

Photographs taken at Logan Creek, Reynolds County, MO., 7-17-03.


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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOFI ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOFI
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+menthifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+menthifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 501 Protocol scheme 'https' is not supported (LWP::Protocol::https not installed) https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

Updated: 2017-12-13 18:16:29 gmt
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