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Nebris occidentalis Vaillant, 1897
PACIFIC SMALLEYE CROAKER
Pacific small-eye croaker

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sciaenidae   Nebris

Nebris occidentalis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Nebris occidentalis

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Nebris occidentalis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Nebris occidentalis
Nebris occidentalis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Nebris occidentalis
español

Overview
Main identification features Elongate, rounded; dorsal rays VI or VII + I, 28-31; anal rays II, 11-13; pored lateral-line scales 45-59, 100-120 scales in lateral series above lateral line; gill rakers on lower limb of first arch 14-15, total rakers on first arch 20-23; head broad, skull bones very cavernous, spongy to touch; mouth large, oblique, the lower jaw projecting; no barbels on chin; eye very small, 8.0-10.0 in head length; teeth small, villiform, in a narrow ridge on jaws; margin of preopercle without serrations; margin of tail fin rounded to short blunt point; soft dorsal and anal fins with well developed scaly sheath.

Color silvery to pale tan on upper head and body; sides with brownish spotting; fins dusky, except pelvics and anal yellowish; mouth yellow orange to white; young with broad vertical dark bars on side.

Size: attains at least 60 cm.

Inhabits coastal waters.

Depth: 1-30 m.

Southern Mexico (Gulf of Tehuantepec) to Peru.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 30 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: Pelagic crustacea; zooplankton; bony fishes; zooplankton; pelagic fish larvae.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=16; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-94; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=22; Longitudinal range=16.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Water column; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 60 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Continent only; TEP endemic; Continental TEP endemic; Mexican + Panamic provinces endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1925., The marine fishes of Panama. Part II., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:331-707.
  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1990., Sistematica y Abundancia de los Peces de la Familia Sciaenidae (Pisces: Perciformes) en areas Aledañas a la Bahia de Buenaventura., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :413-421.
  • Vaillant,., 1897., Sur les espèces à distinguer dans le genre Nebris, Cuvier et Valenciennes., Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 3:124.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Nebris occidentalis   Vaillant , 1897

Pacific smalleye croaker Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Nebris occidentalis (Pacific smalleye croaker) Nebris occidentalis
Picture by Béarez, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Nebris: Greek, nebris, -idos = skin of a fawn (Ref. 45335 ) .   More on author: Vaillant .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic.   Tropical; 26°N -

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Guatemala to Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118 ); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Body elongate and rounded in cross section; snout prominent; mouth very large and oblique; lower jaw prominent; teeth small and set on narrow crests; eyes very small, their diameter contained 8 to 10 times in head length; lower branch of first gill arch with 14 to 15 gill rakers; smalll cycloid scales; back yellowish brown with grayish highlights; flanks silvery with small dark spots (Ref. 55763 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are found in the surf zone of coastal waters, in estuaries and coastal lagoons (Ref. 9118 ). Occasionally found in markets (Ref. 9118 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chao, L.N. , 1995. Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00425 - 0.01785), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.7   ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Garilao, Cristina V. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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