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Nomada bethunei Cockerell, 1903
Nomada (Heminomada) bethunei Cockerell, 1903; Nomada (Xanthidium) pseudops Cockerell, 1905

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Apidae   Nomada
Subgenus: None

Nomada bethunei, f, face, md, kent county ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Nomada bethunei, f, face, md, kent county ---.. ZS PMax

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Nomada bethunei, f, side, md, kent county ---.. ZS PMax
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Nomada bethunei, f, side, md, kent county ---.. ZS PMax
Nomada bethunei, f, back, md, kent county ---.. ZS PMax
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Nomada bethunei, f, back, md, kent county ---.. ZS PMax

Nomada bethunei, f habitus3
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, f habitus3
Nomada bethunei, f hind tibia
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, f hind tibia

Nomada bethunei, f propodeum
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, f propodeum
Nomada bethunei, f T1 T2
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, f T1 T2

Nomada bethunei, f vertex
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, f vertex
Nomada bethunei, m habitus
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, m habitus

Nomada bethunei, m hind tibia
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, m hind tibia
Nomada bethunei, m hind tibia2
Molly Rightmyer · 1
Nomada bethunei, m hind tibia2

Nomada bethunei, female, T5 pseudo (mod)
© Mary Paul · 1
Nomada bethunei, female, T5 pseudo (mod)
Nomada bethunei, female, T5 yellow
© Mary Paul · 1
Nomada bethunei, female, T5 yellow

Nomada bethunei, female, pygidium moderate
© Mary Paul · 1
Nomada bethunei, female, pygidium moderate
Overview
The female of bethunei was previously undescribed and determined by Droege to be the same as the species Mitchell had described as Nomada pseudops
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152.


MALE—Length 9-10 mm.; lateral subequally distant from margin of vertex each other; cheeks considerably narrower eyes, posterior margin strongly carinate antennal scape quite strongly swollen, apex deeply excavated and completely enclosing basal segment of flagellum very short, the shorter side less than half length of segment 2, median segments somewhat longer than broad; mandibles rather robust, simple; wings hyaline basally, becoming lightly infuscated apically and in marginal cell, with the usual three submarginal cells, 2nd much broader anteriorly than 3rd, veins testaceous to piceous, basal vein considerably basad of transverse median; tegulae shining between very close, deep and distinct punctures; posterior margin of scutellum deeply grooved; front coxae not spinose; hind femora slender and unmodified; face below antennae largely yellow, with only a small amount of red below each antenna and between the yellow supraclypeal area and lateral face marks, these ending rather abruptly at level of antennae; face otherwise chiefly ferruginous, with a small amount of black just above supraclypeal area and between ocelli; posterior margin of cheeks rather narrowly black; antennal scape bright yellow anteriorly, more ferruginous on inner and posterior sides, flagellum brownish-testaceous; thorax red in large part, the pronotal collar narrowly, tubercles, an anterior maculation on mesopleura, and a small lateral maculation on each side of posterior face of propodeum, yellow; tegulae more testaceous; metapleura and lateral faces of propodeum black, and a small amount of black medially on venter of thorax; legs largely reddish-testaceous, the front coxae, trochanters, femora and tibiae quite definitely yellow anteriorly, a small amount of yellow on mid coxae beneath and hind coxae laterally; spurs pale yellow; basal abdominal tergum largely dark, with a transverse, more or less ferruginous, submedian band which becomes yellowish laterally, the basal and apical margins fuscous; terga 2-6 with broad, transverse, entire, yellow bands, these more basal, very broad laterally and somewhat narrowed medially on 2-4, subapical on 5 and 6; discs of abdominal sterna 3-6 with considerable yellow, the broadly impunctate and depressed apical margins testaceous-hyaline; punctures of face coarse, close, deep and distinct, those on vertex somewhat more crowded, becoming rather fine but densely crowded on cheeks below, supraclypeal area and clypeus very finely and obscurely punctate, very sparsely so on each side of clypeus just above mandibles; scutum, mesopleura and scutellum coarsely and deeply rugoso-punctate, the propodeum posteriorly somewhat more finely and more shallowly rugose, lateral faces more or less rugoso-striate below, more coarsely rugose above; discs of abdominal terga minutely and quite closely punctate, basal tergum becoming impunctate laterally and basally, punctures on the following terga becoming somewhat more widely separated on the apically impressed areas, somewhat coarsely so on the more apical terga, only the very narrow rims entirely impunctate; pubescence very short and thin, entirely pale, whitish, quite copious on head and thorax below, becoming somewhat shorter and more yellowish above, very short and inconspicuous on abdomen dorsally, very sparse and thin on the sterna; sternum 6 densely clothed toward apex with rather elongate, erect, pale pubescence; median length of pygidial plate sub- equal to basal width, rather strongly narrowed apically, the tip deeply incised, margins carinate, surface rather coarsely but shallowly punctate; exposed sternal plates unmodified; sternum 6 quite strongly narrowed apically; sternum 8 much as in annulata (fig. 104); gonocoxites of genital armature as shown (fig. 105).

DISTRIBUTION — Michigan and Ohio, May to July.

Identification
Extracted from Droege, S. 2010. New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Zootaxa, 2661: 1-32.


Diagnosis. Nomada bethunei has more prominent yellow and red integument than in many other species, particularly in the males (Figs. 5, 6). Females are differentiated by the following combination of characters: face with integument color pattern grading from red near the vertex to orange-yellow near the mandible except for restricted black regions immediately surrounding the ocelli and between the antennal bases (Fig. 4); preoccipital margin carinate on gena; mesoscutum with integument more than fifty percent red (Fig. 5); posterior surface of propodeum midlaterally with large yellow maculation extending from ventral margin dorsally, either joining or not joining yellow maculation laterally on propodeal triangle (Fig. 21); hind tibia with four to eight short, thick, red, spine-like hairs that line the outer apical margin (these hairs often difficult to detect as they are shorter than the surrounding white hairs) (Fig. 15); for specimens from the eastern part of the species’ distribution, the scutellum is red; the propodeal triangle is red with two round, yellow, lateral spots; and T2–T3 have transverse yellow maculations that are clearly medially-interrupted (specimens from the midwestern part of the species’ distribution with the scutellum yellow to orange, propodeal triangle with a lateral, quadrate, yellow maculation; and T2–T3 each with a solid, or rarely medially-interrupted, transverse maculation). Nomada bethunei is similar to N. augustiana, but can be differentiated from that species by the long, white, spine-like hairs on the outer apical margin of the hind tibia that clearly extend beyond the surrounding white hairs in N. augustiana (Fig. 13). It is also similar to N. obliterata, but in that species there are only two submarginal cells on the forewing (rarely three, but in such cases, usually only one wing with three cells), and the hind tibia has usually three to four, relatively long, stout setae on the outer apical margin, these setae clearly bent posteriorly at their apical tips. Finally, N. armatella differs from N. bethunei by the presence of long, thin, white or transparent, stout, spine-like hairs on the outer apical margin of the hind tibia. Males of N. bethunei are among the few species of Nomada, of this sex, with greater than fifty percent red on the integument of the mesoscutum (Fig. 6). Males are differentiated from N. articulata Smith and N. australisMitchell by the lack of a small spine present on the posterior surface (when the antennae is projected dorsally) of the third flagellar segment in both those species; it is separated from all other species by the combination of extensive red integument on the mesoscutum and by the very short, spine-like hairs on the outer apical margin of the hind tibia: these hairs are white, clear, or pinkish and are difficult to see among the surrounding white hairs in this region (Fig. 16) (often most visible when the specimen is inverted and the tibia is examined from underneath). Other species have stout spine-like hairs on the hind tibia that project beyond or are level with the surrounding white hairs in this area.

Molecular results. We obtained DNA barcoding data from four female specimens and one male specimen (Table 1) that were morphologically similar to the two holotypes representing each gender. The sequences from all five specimens were completely identical (0% sequence divergence), even though they were sampled from several different localities (e.g., Ontario, Connecticut, New York), further supporting the synonymy of N. pseudops with N. bethunei.

Variation. Both males and females have greater amounts of yellow on the propodeum and metasoma in the Midwest than the East. The metasomal terga have transverse yellow maculations that vary from mediallyinterrupted to complete.

Distribution. Nomada pseudops, as previously understood, is an uncommon, northern species, flying in late spring (most specimens from late May to Early June). Mitchell lists Michigan and Ohio for N. bethunei and Wisconsin to Massachusetts under N. pseudops. Based on Mitchell’s records and personal observation, N. bethunei ranges from Virginia north to Massachusetts, west to Kansas and Ontario.

Material examined. We examined 23 specimens from ON, CT, NY, NJ, VA, MI, PA, IA, WI, KS, and IL (Appendix).

Comments. Nomada bethunei, while uncommon, appears to be regularly collected throughout its range.


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Asteraceae  Leucanthemum vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (2)
Fabaceae  Melilotus officinalis @ BBSL (2)
J. rykken  1037 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Ranunculaceae  Ranunculus acris @ UCMS_ENT (2)
Rosaceae  Rubus flagellaris @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Rubus sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)
_  Brauneria purpurea @ BBSL (1)

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Updated: 2018-02-18 04:08:12 gmt
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