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Phytolacca americana L.
PIGEON BERRY
Pokeweed; Inkberry; Pigeonberry; Pokeberry; Phytolacca decandra L; American pokeweed

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Phytolaccaceae   Phytolacca

Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana

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Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana

Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana

Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana

Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view

Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - frontal view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - frontal view of flower

Phytolacca americana, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, stem - showing leaf bases
Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view

Phytolacca americana, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, fruit - as borne on the plant
Phytolacca americana, leaf - basal or on lower stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, leaf - basal or on lower stem

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
_  2007-09-29 16 @ (1)

phytolacca americana @ I_EHLK (3)

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (1)
Apidae  Apis mellifera @ PN- (3)

Ceratina dupla @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe aculeata @ BPI (1)

Diaporthe arctii @ BPI (1)

Phomopsis @ BPI (1)
Halictidae  Lasioglossum ephialtum @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum oceanicum @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum pilosum @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora flagellaris @ BPI (12)

Septoria phytolaccae @ BPI (2)
Phyllachoraceae  Phyllachora @ BPI (1)
Phytolaccaceae  Phytolacca americana @ I_EHLK (3)
Pleosporaceae  Alternaria concentrica @ BPI (1)
_  Cicadellidae @ PN- (2)

Gn_ms_flectotheca sp_wa0909msp100 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Vespidae @ PN- (1)

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Following modified from Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University
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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Phytolacca americana L. Pokeweed
Phytolaccaceae — Pokeweed family
Native
Phytolacca americana
The front yard
July 2001 Phytolacca americana
White Clay Creek State Park -- Creek Road
September 2010 Phytolacca americana
Paper Mill Park
September 2014

More information on this plant, from other sources.


Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Phytolacca americana L. - Pokeweed

Phytolacca americana plant

Family - Phytolaccaceae

Stems - To 3m tall, erect, glabrous, greenish to purple-red, branching, herbaceous.

Phytolacca americana stem

Leaves - Alternate, entire, oblong, lanceolate-oblong, or ovate, petiolate, up to +30cm long, +15cm wide.

Inflorescence - Axillary racemes to +/-40cm long. Pedicels to 1cm long, 4-angled, tuberculate on angles, subtended by curling bract. Bract to 4mm long, 1mm broad. Pedicel with two small attenuate bracts alternate about at it's midpoint. Axis of inflorescence and pedicels whitish in flower, becoming red in fruit.

Phytolacca americana flowers Portion of inflorescence.

Flowers - Apetalous. Sepals 5, white or with a pinkish tinge, distinct, 2.2mm long and broad, slightly involute, broadly ovate to rotund, entire or slightly erose near apex. Stamens 10. Filaments pinkish-white, 2mm long, glabrous. Ovary 10-carpellate, green, globose to subglobose, 2.4mm in diameter, glabrous. Fruit a purple-black berry to -1cm in diameter.

Phytolacca americana flower Flower close-up.

Phytolacca americana fruits Fruits.

Flowering - May - October.

Habitat - Waste ground, disturbed sites, open woods, pastures, prairies, roadsides, railroads.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info . - All parts of this weedy species are toxic when mature but the young shoots and leaves can be eaten when cooked. Why take the chance when there is a grocery store on every corner? The "ink" from the berries will stain almost anything it touches.
This is an easy species to ID in the field because of its big, alternate leaves, reddish stems, long inflorescences, and purple berries.

Photographs taken in the Ozark Scenic Riverways, Shannon County, MO, 6-24-03 and 6-29-03.


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Following served from Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00000364 wa%201996%20l47%20h140
   
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   
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Kingdom Plantae  
 Phylum Magnoliophyta  
 Class Magnoliopsida  
 Order Caryophyllales  
 Family Phytolaccaceae  
 Genus Phytolacca  
  Phytolacca americana    L., 1753 
Provider: Ching-I Peng 
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Citation: Flora of Taiwan 2nd ed. 2: 316, 1996; 台灣入侵及外來種圖鑑, 林業試驗所 2005
Name Code: 202738
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 4 | Phytolaccaceae | Phytolacca

2. Phytolacca americana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 441. 1753.

Pokeweed, poke, pokeberry

Plants to 3(-7) m. Leaves: petiole 1-6 cm; blade lanceolate to ovate, to 35 × 18 cm, base rounded to cordate, apex acuminate. Racemes open, proximalmost pedicels sometimes bearing 2-few flowers, erect to drooping, 6-30 cm; peduncle to 15 cm; pedicel 3-13 mm. Flowers: sepals 5, white or greenish white to pinkish or purplish, ovate to suborbiculate, equal to subequal, 2.5-3.3 mm; stamens (9-)10(-12) in 1 whorl; carpels 6-12, connate at least in proximal 1 /2; ovary 6-12-loculed. Berries purple-black, 6-11 mm diam. Seeds black, lenticular, 3 mm, shiny. 2 n = 36.

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): North America; introduced in Europe.

The infraspecific taxonomy of Phytolacca americana has been disputed since J. K. Small (1905) recognized P. rigida as distinct from P. americana on the basis of its "permanently erect panicles" [sic] and "pedicels...much shorter than the diameter of the berries." J. W. Hardin (1964b) separated P. rigida from P. americana by the length of the raceme (2-12 cm in P. rigida , 5-30 cm in P. americana ) and the thickness and diameter of the xylem center of the peduncle (70% greater thickness in P. rigida , 17% greater diameter in P. americana ), but he found no discontinuities in any feature. J. W. Nowicke (1968) and J. D. Sauer (1952), among others, treated P. rigida as a synonym of P. americana . Most recently, D. B. Caulkins and R. Wyatt (1990) recognized P. rigida as a variety of P. americana .

The varieties are not always clearly distinct. Some specimens combine the erect inflorescences of var. rigida with the long pedicels of var. americana . Such intermediate plants can be seen as far north as coastal Delaware, sometimes growing with var. americana .

Collectors of Phytolacca americana should record carefully whether the inflorescences are erect, drooping, or intermediate between the extremes.

The fruits and seeds of Phytolacca americana are eaten and disseminated by birds and, probably, mammals. They are said to be an important source of food for mourning doves (A. C. Martin et al. 1951).

Phytolacca americana is well known to herbalists, cell biologists, and toxicologists. According to some accounts, its young leaves, after being boiled in two waters (the first being discarded) to deactivate toxins, are edible, even being available canned (they pose no culinary threat to spinach). Young shoots are eaten as a substitute for asparagus. Ripe berries were used to color wine and are eaten (cooked) in pies. Poke is used as an emetic, a purgative, a suppurative, a spring tonic, and a treatment for various skin maladies, especially hemorrhoids.

Pokeweed mitogen is a mixture of glycoprotein lectins that are powerful immune stimulants, promoting T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation and increased immun-oglobulin levels. "Accidental exposure to juices from Phytolacca americana via ingestion, breaks in the skin, and the conjunctiva has brought about hematological changes in numerous people, including researchers studying this species" (G. K. Rogers 1985). Poke antiviral proteins are of great interest for their broad, potent antiviral (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and antifungal properties (P. Wang et al. 1998). Saponins found in P. americana and P. dodecandra are lethal to the molluscan intermediate host of schistosomiasis (J. M. Pezzuto et al. 1984). The toxic compounds in P. americana are phytolaccatoxin and related triterpene saponins, the alkaloid phytolaccin, various histamines, and oxalic acid. When ingested, the roots, leaves, and fruits may poison animals, including Homo sapiens . Symptoms of poke poisoning include sweating, burning of the mouth and throat, severe gastritis, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, blurred vision, elevated white-blood-cell counts, unconsciousness, and, rarely, death.

"Poke" is thought to come from "pocan" or "puccoon," probably from the Algonquin term for a plant that contains dye.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Armesto, J. J., G. P. Cheplick, and M. J. McDonnell. 1983. Observations of the reproductive biology of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 380-383. Caulkins, D. B. and R. Wyatt. 1990. Variation and taxonomy of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida in the southeastern United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117: 357-367. Davis, J. I. 1985. Introgression in Central American Phytolacca (Phytolaccaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 72: 1944-1953. Hardin, J. W. 1964b. A comparison of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida . Castanea 29: 155-164. Sauer, J. D. 1950. Pokeweed, an old American herb. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 38: 82-88. Sauer, J. D. 1951. Studies of variation in the weed genus Phytolacca . II. Latitudinally adapted variants within a North American species. Evolution 5: 273-279. Sauer, J. D. 1952. A geography of pokeweed. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 39: 113-125.

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Updated: 2017-11-24 08:05:58 gmt
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