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Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don
WESTERN WHITE PINE
Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Pinus

Pinus monticola, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, cone - female - mature open

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Pinus monticola, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, cone - female - mature open
Pinus monticola, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, leaf - entire needle

Pinus monticola, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, twig - showing attachment of needles
Pinus monticola, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, bark - of a small tree or small branch

Pinus monticola, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, whole tree - general
Pinus monticola, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, whole tree - view up trunk

Pinus monticola, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, cone - female - mature open
Pinus monticola, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus monticola, bark - of a large tree

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma acicola @ BPI (1)

Phoma acuum @ BPI (1)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella minor @ BPI (1)

Ceratostomella pilifera @ BPI (1)

Ceratostomella pini @ BPI (1)

Ceratostomella @ BPI (1)
Anthocoridae  Acompocoris lepidus @ NCSU_ENT (1)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (6)

Essigella ( @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Auriscalpiaceae  Clavicorona pyxidata @ BPI (1)
Ceratostomataceae  Ceratostoma @ BPI (1)
Clavicipitaceae  Aschersonia pinicola @ BPI (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora arida @ BPI (5)

Coniophora byssoidea @ BPI (4)

Coniophora cerebella @ BPI (1)

Coniophora laxa @ BPI (2)

Coniophora olivacea @ BPI (3)

Coniophora puteana @ BPI (2)

Coniophora suffocata @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium arachnoideum @ BPI (6)

Corticium berkeleyi @ BPI (1)

Corticium calceum @ BPI (10)

Corticium canum @ BPI (1)

Corticium corruge @ BPI (1)

Corticium furfuraceum @ BPI (3)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (3)

Corticium giganteum @ BPI (5)

Corticium glebulosum @ BPI (1)

Corticium lividocoeruleum @ BPI (2)

Corticium lividum @ BPI (7)

Corticium ochraceum @ BPI (2)

Corticium pallidum @ BPI (2)

Corticium radiosum @ BPI (1)

Corticium sulphureum @ BPI (2)

Corticium tessulatum @ BPI (1)

Corticium vagum @ BPI (3)

Corticium @ BPI (1)
Coryneliaceae  Caliciopsis pinea @ BPI (2)
Cronartiaceae  Cronartium ribicola @ BPI (26)
Cucurbitariaceae  Cucurbitaria pithyophila @ BPI (10)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces corticioides @ BPI (1)

Ditiola involuta @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Atropellis pinicola @ BPI (40)

Atropellis piniphila @ BPI (1)

Atropellis @ BPI (2)

Durandiella pini @ BPI (1)

Durandiella @ BPI (1)

Mollisia cinerea @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis strobi @ BPI (1)
Dothioraceae  Dothichiza pythiophila @ BPI (1)
Entolomataceae  Claudopus nidulans @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium abietis @ BPI (2)

Cenangium acuum @ BPI (1)

Godronia @ BPI (1)

Scleroderris @ 665925B (1); 665925A (1); BPI (3)

Tympanis confusa @ BPI (2)

Tympanis hypopodia @ BPI (3)

Tympanis pinastri @ BPI (4)

Tympanis @ BPI (3)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (9)

Dasyscyphus arida @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus calyciformis @ BPI (20)

Dasyscyphus ellisiana @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus pini @ BPI (20)

Dasyscyphus willkommii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus @ BPI (5)

Lachnum niveum @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum alutaceum @ BPI (1)
Lachnocladiaceae  Asterostroma medium @ BPI (2)

Vararia granulosa @ BPI (3)

Vararia pallescens @ BPI (1)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Dacryobolus karstenii @ BPI (1)

Merulius armeniacus @ BPI (1)

Merulius aureus @ BPI (3)

Merulius borealis @ BPI (2)

Merulius fugax @ BPI (1)

Merulius lacrimans @ BPI (1)

Merulius molluscus @ BPI (8)

Merulius montanus @ BPI (4)

Merulius vastator @ BPI (4)

Phlebia albida @ BPI (3)

Phlebia merismoides @ BPI (2)
Microascaceae  Graphium rigidum @ 448812B (1); 448812A (1)
Miridae  Ceratocapsus apicatus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocapsus fraternus @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Deraeocoris brevis @ AMNH_ENT (3)

Deraeocoris fulvescens @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Dichrooscytus latifrons @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichrooscytus rostratus @ AMNH_PBI (4)

Pappus andrei @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Pappus intermedius @ AMNH_ENT (3)

Phytocoris fraterculus @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Pilophorus americanus @ AMNH_PBI (18)

Pilophorus diffusus @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Pilophorus tibialis @ AMNH_PBI (6)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Lecanosticta acicola @ BPI (3)
Mytilinidiaceae  Lophium mytilinum @ BPI (6)
Nectriaceae  Fusarium reticulatum @ BPI (1)

Nectria cinnabarina @ BPI (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (3)

Nectria fuckeliana @ BPI (1)

Nectria pithoides @ BPI (1)

Nectria purtonii @ BPI (1)

Ophionectria scolecospora @ BPI (1)
Nidulariaceae  Cyathus vernicosus @ BPI (2)
Odontasteridae  Asterodon ferruginosus @ BPI (1)
Ophiostomataceae  Leptographium lundbergii @ BPI (4)
Papilionidae  Graphium ambrosiigerum @ BPI (1)
Patellidae  Patella uniseriata @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (2)

Peniophora crassa @ BPI (24)

Peniophora gigantea @ BPI (3)

Peniophora glebulosa @ BPI (9)

Peniophora globifera @ BPI (7)

Peniophora pallidula @ BPI (2)

Peniophora pertenuis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora sanguinea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora subapiculata @ BPI (2)

Peniophora subincarnata @ BPI (1)

Peniophora sulphurina @ BPI (1)

Peniophora tabacina @ BPI (2)

Peniophora weirii @ BPI (2)

Peniophora @ BPI (2)
Phacidiaceae  Phacidium @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Phanerochaete carnosa @ BPI (9)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus porrigens @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Cryptoporus volvatus @ BPI (2)

Fomes annosus @ BPI (3)

Fomes applanatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes carneus @ BPI (1)

Fomes officinalis @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (20)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (1)

Fomes putearius @ BPI (2)

Fomes roseus @ BPI (1)

Fomes tenuis @ BPI (1)

Lentinus lepideus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus acidus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus albidus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus alutaceus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus amorphus @ BPI (14)

Polyporus anceps @ BPI (6)

Polyporus caesius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus circinatus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus crispellus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus destructor @ BPI (2)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus fragilis @ BPI (6)

Polyporus guttulatus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus lapponicus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus leporinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus leucospongia @ BPI (1)

Polyporus osseus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (1)

Polyporus pini-canadensis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (10)

Polyporus stipticus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus tephroleucus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tomentosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus trabeus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus undosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus ursinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus volvatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus @ BPI (8)

Poria albipellucida @ BPI (3)

Poria albobrunnea @ BPI (4)

Poria aurantiaca @ BPI (1)

Poria calcea @ BPI (1)

Poria callosa @ BPI (8)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (9)

Poria coniferarum @ BPI (1)

Poria ferrugineofusca @ BPI (1)

Poria hibernica @ BPI (1)

Poria lenis @ BPI (1)

Poria luteoalba @ BPI (1)

Poria medulla-panis @ BPI (1)

Poria monticola @ BPI (7)

Poria purpurea @ BPI (1)

Poria rixosa @ BPI (3)

Poria salmonicolor @ BPI (1)

Poria sanguinolenta @ BPI (2)

Poria selecta @ BPI (6)

Poria sinuosa @ BPI (12)

Poria stellae @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (23)

Poria subincarnata @ BPI (1)

Poria subtilis @ BPI (1)

Poria undata @ BPI (2)

Poria unita @ BPI (1)

Poria vaillantii @ BPI (1)

Poria vaporaria @ BPI (1)

Poria vesiculosa @ BPI (1)

Poria vincta @ BPI (2)

Poria violacea @ BPI (1)

Poria vulgaris @ BPI (1)

Poria xantha @ BPI (25)

Poria @ BPI (5)

Trametes carbonaria @ BPI (1)

Trametes isabellina @ BPI (2)

Trametes odorata @ BPI (4)

Trametes serialis @ BPI (4)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (2)
Reduviidae  Phymata @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Sinea @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Rhizinaceae  Rhizina undulata @ BPI (2)
Rhytismataceae  Bifusella linearis @ BPI (26)

Hypoderma lineare @ BPI (1)

Leptostroma pinastri @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium durilabrum @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium nitens @ BPI (28)

Lophodermium pinastri @ BPI (32)

Lophodermium @ BPI (2)

Propolis leonis @ BPI (1)

Therrya pini @ BPI (3)

Therrya @ BPI (2)
Sebacinaceae  Sebacina @ BPI (1)
Serpulidae  Serpula mollusca @ BPI (1)

Serpula silvestris @ BPI (3)
Sparassidaceae  Sparassis radicata @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia alutacea @ BPI (1)

Odontia barba-jovis @ BPI (1)

Odontia bicolor @ 265458A (1); 265458B (1)

Odontia romellii @ BPI (3)

Odontia sudans @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum fasciatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum karstenii @ BPI (1)

Stereum rugisporum @ BPI (3)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (5)

Stereum sulcatum @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Flammula sapinea @ BPI (1)
Tremellaceae  Tremella mesenterica @ BPI (1)

Tremella pinicola @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium citrinum @ BPI (2)

Helotium @ BPI (1)

Omphalia campanella @ BPI (1)

Omphalia @ BPI (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia candida @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora pini @ BPI (3); 365549A (1); 365549B (1)

Cytospora @ BPI (1)

Valsa pini @ 574912A (1); BPI (1); 575519B (1); 574912B (1); 575519A (1)
Xylariaceae  Rosellinia thelena @ BPI (1)
_  Ambrosiella ferruginea @ BPI (3)

Arrhytidia involuta @ BPI (1)

Clithris crispa @ BPI (3)

Cucurbidothis pithyophila @ 625237B (1); 625237A (1); BPI (2)

Dendrophoma @ BPI (1)

Erinella @ BPI (6)

Gelatinosporium @ BPI (1)

Grandinia granulosa @ BPI (18)

Grandinia mucida @ BPI (1)

Grandinia @ BPI (1)

Hormonema dematioides @ BPI (2)

Myxosporium pinastri @ BPI (1)

Neopeckia coulteri @ BPI (5)

Podoplaconema @ BPI (1)

Sclerophoma pithyophila @ BPI (1)

Sclerophoma @ BPI (2)

Stictopatella laricis @ BPI (5)

Stictopatella @ BPI (2)

Thyrsidium oblongum @ BPI (2)

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Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
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The Gymnosperm Database

photo

Subalpine tree at ca. 3200 m elevation near the species' southern range limit in California; tree is about 14 m tall and 100 cm dbh [C.J. Earle, 2008.07.02].

photo

Western White Pine [Matt Strieby, 2016].

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Tree in North Cascades, Washington. Cones borne on branches receiving full sun [C.J. Earle, 2003.09.01].

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Bark on a tree 100 cm diameter, Sequoia National Park, California [C.J. Earle, 2005.07.23].

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Foliar units; tree in North Cascades, Washington [C.J. Earle, 2003.09.01].

photo

Cones on sapling near Timber Gap, Sequoia National Park, California [C.J. Earle, 2005.07.23].

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Mature seed cone [C.J. Earle, 2005.07.23].

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Sapling 0.8 m tall, Christina Lake, British Columbia [C.J. Earle, 2009.08.14].

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Tree in habitat [Matt Strieby, 2016].

off-site photos

 

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Conservation status

Pinus monticola

Douglas ex D. Don in Lambert 1832

Common names

Western white pine; silver, soft, fingercone, mountain, Idaho, or little sugar pine ( Peattie 1950 ); pin argenté ( Kral 1993 ).

Taxonomic notes

Syn: Strobus monticola (Douglas ex D. Don) Rydberg ( Kral 1993 ). One of 23 species in Pinus sect. Quinquefoliae . Evolutionary relationships in the genus are not well understood. Chloroplast DNA data (Liston et al. 2007) suggests that P. monticola is sister to a group containing P. albicaulis and most of the Old World white pines (except P. gerardiana and P. peuce , which are basal in the white pine clade). On the other hand, study of a nuclear DNA locus placed it with more "traditional" associates (based on morphological comparisons) such as P. lambertiana , P. strobus , and P. strobiformis (Syring et al. 2007). Discussion in the latter paper traced inconsistency in nuclear DNA results primarily to incomplete lineage sorting, which is what happens when speciation preserves and perpetuates ancestral polymorphisms. Paradoxically (because pines in general are often thought of as "ancient" and "relictual"), relatively rapid speciation in the white pines has produced a group of species that share many polymorphisms and few monophyletic traits.

Description

Trees 30(70) m tall and 100(250) cm in diameter, straight; crown narrowly conic, becoming broad and flattened. Bark grey and thin, smooth, becoming furrowed into distinctive rectangular to hexagonal scaly plates in large individuals. Branches nearly whorled, spreading-ascending; twigs slender, pale red-brown, rusty puberulent and slightly glandular (rarely glabrous), aging purple-brown or gray, smooth. Buds ellipsoid or cylindric, rust-colored, 0.4-0.5cm, slightly resinous. Needles 5 per fascicle, spreading to ascending, persisting 3-4 years, 4-10 cm x 0.7-1 mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, blue-green, abaxial surface without evident stomatal lines, adaxial surfaces with evident stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex broadly to narrowly acute; sheath 1-1.5 cm, shed early. Staminate cones ellipsoid, 10-15 mm, yellow. Ovulate cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, clustered, pendent, symmetric, lance-cylindric to ellipsoid-cylindric before opening, broadly lanceoloid to ellipsoid-cylindric when open, 10-25 cm, creamy brown to yellowish, without purple or gray tints, resinous, stalks to 2 cm; umbo terminal, depressed. Seeds compressed, broadly obovoid-deltoid; body 5-7 mm, red-brown; wing 2-2.5 cm. 2 n =24 ( Kral 1993 , Little 1980 ).

Distribution and Ecology

Western USA: Washington, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, California; and Canada: Alberta, British Columbia; to 1000 m in N, and at 1900-3000 m in the S. Occurs in lowland fog forests or on moist mountain soils, occasionally in forested bogs. Usually in mixed conifer forests, occasionally in pure stands ( Kral 1993 , Little 1980 ). See also Thompson et al. (1999) . Hardy to Zone 4 (cold hardiness limit between -34.3°C and -28.9°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 , but provenance unknown; see remarks below).

Distribution data from USGS (1999) . Points plotted as tree icons represent isolated or approximate locations.

A common garden experiment using quantitative traits and genetic analysis linked to a large selection of climate variables was used by Richardson et al. (2009) to show that there are two major climate response ecotypes in P. monticola , found in trees respectively north and south of an abrupt transition zone in the southern Oregon Cascades. Trees south of this line experience warmer, drier summers, have lower tolerance for low temperatures, and have lower growth potential (there is also a gradient in cold tolerance from maritime to continental sites).

Big tree

The biggest stem volume is found in the Fish Lake Pine, which grows near Fish Lake in Rogue River National Forest, Oregon. It has a stem volume of 91 m 3 , a dbh of 205 cm and is 67.7 meters tall. Formerly, all the really big white pines grew in Idaho, but they have been largely destroyed by logging and white pine blister rust. The remaining giant Idaho pines are in the Floodwood State Forest, where you can find the Floodwood Giant (52 m 3 stem volume, dbh 201 cm, height 69.2 meters) and the tallest known white pine, reaching 70.7 meters high ( Van Pelt 2000 ).

Oldest

Harlow and Harrar (1969) report a maximum age of 615 years. The source is not stated, but most of their measurements are from ring counts on stumps.

Dendrochronology

Ethnobotany

Once the preferred wood for matches ( Kral 1993 ), it is no longer a major timber tree.

Observations

It is the only big pine in western Washington and northwest Oregon, and seems to be easily found in inland coniferous forests throughout that area.

Remarks

White pine blister rust ( Cronartium ribicola ), an introduced fungal disease, has decimated formerly extensive stands of this and certain other white pines ( Little 1980 ).

This species is the principal host for the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium monticola ( Hawksworth and Wiens 1996 ).

Western white pine is the state tree of Idaho ( Kral 1993 ).

This is another of the many North American conifers first described by David Douglas . See the Topics page for more on Douglas.

Citations

Harlow, W.M., and E.S. Harrar. 1969. Textbook of Dendrology. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill. pp 313.

Liston, A., M. Parker-Defeniks, J.V. Syring, A. Willyard, and R. Cronin. 2007. Interspecific phylogenetic analysis enhances intraspecific phylogeographical inference: a case study in Pinus lambertiana . Molecular Ecology 16(18):3926-3937.

Richardson, B.A., G.E. Rehfeldt, and M.-S. Kim. 2009. Congruent climate-related genecological responses from molecular markers and quantitative traits for western white pine ( Pinus monticola ). International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(9):1120-1131.

Syring, J.V., K. Farrell, R. Businsky, R. Cronin, and A. Liston. 2007. Widespread genealogical nonmonophyly in species of Pinus subgenus Strobus . Systematic Biology 56(2):1-19.

See also

Arno, Stephen F. and Jane Gyer. 1973. Discovering Sierra trees . Yosemite Natural History Association. 89pp.

FEIS database .

Lanner 1983 .

Neuenschwander et al. 1999 .

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3. Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don in Lambert, Descr. Pinus [ed. 3]. 2: unnumbered page between 144 and 145. 1832.

Western white pine, pin argenté

Strobus monticola (Douglas ex D. Don) Rydberg

Trees to 70m; trunk to 2.5m diam., straight; crown narrowly conic, becoming broad and flattened. Bark gray, distinctly platy, plates scaly. Branches nearly whorled, spreading-ascending; twigs slender, pale red-brown, rusty puberulent and slightly glandular (rarely glabrous), aging purple-brown or gray, smooth. Buds ellipsoid or cylindric, rust-colored, 0.4--0.5cm, slightly resinous. Leaves 5 per fascicle, spreading to ascending, persisting 3--4 years, 4--10cm ´ 0.7--1mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, blue-green, abaxial surface without evident stomatal lines, adaxial surfaces with evident stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex broadly to narrowly acute; sheath 1--1.5cm, shed early. Pollen cones ellipsoid, 10--15mm, yellow. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, clustered, pendent, symmetric, lance-cylindric to ellipsoid-cylindric before opening, broadly lanceoloid to ellipsoid-cylindric when open, 10--25cm, creamy brown to yellowish, without purple or gray tints, resinous, stalks to 2cm; umbo terminal, depressed. Seeds compressed, broadly obovoid-deltoid; body 5--7mm, red-brown; wing 2--2.5cm. 2 n =24.

Montane moist forests, lowland fog forests; 0--3000m; Alta., B.C.; Calif., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Wash.

Pinus monticola is the most important western source for matchwood. Its wood lacks the sugary exudates seen in P . lambertiana .

Western white pine ( Pinus monticola ) is the state tree of Idaho.

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