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Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott
SMOOTH SOLOMONS SEAL
Giant Solomons-seal

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Liliaceae   Polygonatum

Polygonatum biflorum
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 10
Polygonatum biflorum

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Polygonatum biflorum, Smooth True Solomons Seal
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Polygonatum biflorum, Smooth True Solomons Seal
Polygonatum biflorum, True Solomons Seal
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 5
Polygonatum biflorum, True Solomons Seal

Polygonatum biflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Polygonatum biflorum

Polygonatum biflorum, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, whole plant - in flower - general view
Polygonatum biflorum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower

Polygonatum biflorum, inflorescence - frontal view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, inflorescence - frontal view of flower
Polygonatum biflorum, leaf - on upper stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, leaf - on upper stem

Polygonatum biflorum, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Polygonatum biflorum, leaf - basal or on lower stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, leaf - basal or on lower stem

Polygonatum biflorum, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, stem - showing leaf bases
Polygonatum biflorum, whole plant - in fruit
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, whole plant - in fruit

Polygonatum biflorum, fruit - lateral or general close-up
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Polygonatum biflorum, fruit - lateral or general close-up
Polygonatum biflorum
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 2
Polygonatum biflorum

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Catamergus kickapoo @ NCSU_ENT (18)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta cruenta @ BPI (3)

Phyllosticta smilacina @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium herbarum @ BPI (1)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia majanthae @ BPI (6)

Puccinia sessilis @ BPI (3)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium convallariae @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. var. biflorum Solomon's-seal
Ruscaceae — Ruscus family
Native
Polygonatum biflorum var. biflorum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Pump House Road
May 2005 Polygonatum biflorum var. biflorum
Middle Run Valley Natural Area
May 2012

Guide to Polygonatum of Delaware

More information on this plant, from other sources.


Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
   Top | See original

Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. var. commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Morong ( Polygonatum canaliculatum ) Giant Solomon's-seal
Ruscaceae — Ruscus family
Uncommon native
Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Thompson Station Road
June 2006 Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Thompson Station Road
June 2007 Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Thompson Station Road
May 2011

Guide to Polygonatum of Delaware

More information on this plant, from other sources.


Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
   Top | See original


Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell.

Solomon's Seal

Polygonatum biflorum plant

Family - Liliaceae

Stems - To +1m tall, erect to arching, glabrous, glaucous, herbaceous, rhizomatous, simple, single from base.

Polygonatum biflorum stem

Leaves - Alternate, sessile, glabrous, somewhat glaucous below, entire, acute, to +18cm long, +7cm wide.

Inflorescence - Pedunculate drooping axillary clusters of 1-5 flowers. Peduncle to +3cm long, glabrous. Pedicels to 8mm long, glabrous, often with small linear bracts to about 1.1mm long.

Polygonatum biflorum inflorescence

Flowers - Whitish-green. Tepals 6, united except at apex, United portion to +/-1.5cm long, glabrous. Free portion of tepals 4mm long, acute, spreading to erect. Stamens 6, adnate about halfway up corolla tube, opposite tepals, included. Filaments to 4mm long, glabrous. Anthers yellow, 4.5mm long, introrse. Ovary superior, 5mm long, ellipsoid, 3-locular. Placentation axile. Style glabrous, 1.1cm long, pale greenish-white. Berries to +1.2cm long (diameter), deep blue, glabrous.

Polygonatum biflorum flowers

Flowering - May - June.

Habitat - Moist, rich woods, roadside ditches, edges of streams and ponds.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - You may find this plant being called P. canaliculatum , which was once thought to be a separate species, but the two are synonymous. This plant is common throughout Missouri.
When not in flower, this plant can be mistaken for another member of the Liliaceae , Smilacina . Smilacina in flower has a terminal raceme and is easy to ID. When not in flower, though, it is easy to mistake the two genera.

Photographs taken in Linville, NC., 5-11-03.


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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POBI2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POBI2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POBI2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=POBI2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=POBI2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=POBI2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott
smooth Solomon's seal

Image of Polygonatum biflorum

General Information
Symbol: POBI2
Group: Monocot
Family: Liliaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Polygonatum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky . University Press of Kentucky. Usage Requirements .

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

©Elaine Haug. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany . United States, VA, Manassas, Conway Robinson Memorial Forest. Usage Requirements .

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden . United States, TX. Usage Requirements .

Mark A. Garland. USA, NC, Jackson Co., Balsam, Daytona Road, cove forest. May 23, 2013. Usage Requirements .

Mark A. Garland. USA, NC, Jackson Co., Balsam, Daytona Road, cove forest. May 23, 2013. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 521. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass Liliidae
Order Liliales
Family Liliaceae – Lily family
Genus Polygonatum Mill. – Solomon's seal
Species Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott – smooth Solomon's seal

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 5 subspecies of Polygonatum biflorum . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Polygonatum biflorum</i>
(Walter) Elliott var. <i>
biflorum</i>
(Walter) Elliott [excluded]
Polygonatum biflorum var. biflorum
smooth Solomon's seal Distribution of <i>
Polygonatum biflorum</i>
(Walter) Elliott var. <i>
commutatum</i>
(Schult. & Schult. f.) Morong
Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum
smooth Solomon's seal Distribution of <i>
Polygonatum biflorum</i>
(Walter) Elliott var. <i>
hebetifolium</i>
R.R. Gates
Polygonatum biflorum var. hebetifolium
smooth Solomon's seal Distribution of <i>
Polygonatum biflorum</i>
(Walter) Elliott var. <i>
melleum</i>
(Farw.) R. Ownbey
Polygonatum biflorum var. melleum
smooth Solomon's seal Distribution of <i>
Polygonatum biflorum</i>
(Walter) Elliott var. <i>
necopinum</i>
R. Ownbey
Polygonatum biflorum var. necopinum
smooth Solomon's seal

Legal Status

U.S. Weed Information
Polygonatum biflorum Solomon's seal smooth Solomon's seal This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S.
NE&GP Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe,and M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains . Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska.

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Arid West FACU
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACU
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACU
Great Plains FACU
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACU

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (POBI2)
Flora of North America (POBI2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (POBI2)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (POBI2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (POBI2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (POBI2)
Native Plants Network (POBI2)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (POBI2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (POBI2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (POBI2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Polygonatum+biflorum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Polygonatum+biflorum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 13
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Polygonatum biflorum%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 0000 0608 0555 [detail]
© 2008 Matt Below

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 0000 0608 0556 [detail]
© 2008 Matt Below

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 0000 0608 0558 [detail]
© 2008 Matt Below

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 0000 0608 0559 [detail]
© 2008 Matt Below

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's-seal
ID: 0000 0000 0710 0783 [detail]
© 2010 Jeff Abbas

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's-seal
ID: 0000 0000 0710 0784 [detail]
© 2010 Jeff Abbas

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's-seal
ID: 0000 0000 0710 0785 [detail]
© 2010 Jeff Abbas

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1393 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Giant Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5001 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Giant Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5002 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Giant Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5003 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Giant Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5004 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum biflorum
Giant Solomon's Seal
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5005 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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