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Quercus phellos L.
WILLOW OAK
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Fagaceae   Quercus

Quercus phellos
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Quercus phellos

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Quercus phellos
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Quercus phellos

Quercus phellos
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Quercus phellos

Quercus phellos
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Quercus phellos

Quercus phellos, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, inflorescence - whole - male
Quercus phellos, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, inflorescence - whole - male

Quercus phellos, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, inflorescence - whole - male
Quercus phellos, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, twig - orientation of petioles

Quercus phellos, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, bark - of a large tree
Quercus phellos, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Quercus phellos, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Quercus phellos, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus phellos, leaf - whole upper surface

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Stegophylla quercicola @ NCSU (33)

Stegophylla quercina @ NCSU (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria corticola @ BPI (1)
Candelariaceae  Candelaria concolor @ I_GBP (2)

Candelariella xanthostigmoides @ I_GBP (1)
Cicadellidae  Alebra aurea @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Empoasca fabae @ III (1)

Eratoneura acantha @ III (15)

Eratoneura adunca @ III (4)

Eratoneura affinis @ III (9)

Eratoneura arta @ III (1)

Eratoneura basilaris @ III (2)

Eratoneura brevipes @ III (3)

Eratoneura campora @ III (4)

Eratoneura carmini @ III (5)

Eratoneura comoides @ III (15)

Eratoneura contracta @ III (2)

Eratoneura delongi @ III (2)

Eratoneura ellisi @ III (40)

Eratoneura emquu @ III (3)

Eratoneura firma @ III (3)

Eratoneura gemina @ III (46)

Eratoneura gilesi @ III (5)

Eratoneura immota @ III (28); NCSU (1); AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura impar @ III (1)

Eratoneura inepta @ III (1)

Eratoneura knullae @ III (3)

Eratoneura lenta @ III (30)

Eratoneura longa @ III (6)

Eratoneura lunata @ III (1)

Eratoneura maga @ III (2)

Eratoneura manus @ III (1)

Eratoneura millsi @ III (3)

Eratoneura misera @ III (1)

Eratoneura parva @ III (2)

Eratoneura patris @ III (3)

Eratoneura phellos @ AMNH_IZC (1); III (23); NCSU (1)

Eratoneura prolixa @ III (1)

Eratoneura propria @ III (1)

Eratoneura restricta @ III (1)

Eratoneura richardsi @ III (1)

Eratoneura spinifera @ III (1)

Eratoneura stephensoni @ III (3)

Eratoneura tantilla @ III (3)

Eratoneura usitata @ III (1)

Erythridula herberti @ III (1)

Erythridula jocosa @ III (1)

Erythridula minuta @ III (1)

Erythridula nigriphylla @ III (1)

Erythridula obliqua @ III (1)

Erythridula parvispicata @ III (10)

Erythridula spatulata @ III (1)

Erythridula volucris @ III (11)

Erythroneura maculata @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Scaphytopius ( @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Cicadidae  Tibicen resh @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Cronartiaceae  Cronartium cerebrum @ BPI (27)

Cronartium fusiforme @ BPI (25)

Cronartium quercuum @ BPI (1)
Cryphonectriaceae  Endothia gyrosa @ BPI (7)

Endothia radicalis @ BPI (1)

Endothia @ 613921A (1); 613921B (1); BPI (2)
Delphacidae  Delphacodes lutulenta @ UDCC_TCN (2)
Derbidae  Cedusa @ MEMU_ENT (3)

Otiocerus abbotii @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Dermateaceae  Marssonina quercina @ BPI (1)

Marssonina @ BPI (1)

Mollisia prinicola @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis @ BPI (2)
Diaspididae  Abgrallaspis colorata @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Aspidiotus @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Diaspidiotus osborni @ MEMU_ENT (4)

Melanaspis obscura @ CSCA_TCN (3); MEMU_ENT (5)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype stigma @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Microsphaera alni @ BPI (4)
Flatidae  Ormenis chloris @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Ormenis pruinosa @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (1)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma curtisii @ BPI (1)

Ganoderma sessile @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Gnomonia setacea @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Godroniopsis quernea @ BPI (3)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus @ BPI (2)
Kermesidae  Kermes @ MEMU_ENT (5)
Lygaeidae  Oncopeltus fasciatus @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Membracidae  Archasia belfragei @ UDCC_TCN (1)

Cyrtolobus arcuatus @ UDCC_TCN (2); NCSU (5)

Cyrtolobus clarus @ UDCC_TCN (27); NCSU (30); AMNH_ENT (2)

Cyrtolobus discoidalis @ AMNH_ENT (2); UDCC_TCN (8)

Cyrtolobus dixianus @ AMNH_ENT (6)

Cyrtolobus fenestratus @ UDCC_TCN (23); AMNH_ENT (2); NCSU (50)

Cyrtolobus flavolatus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Cyrtolobus fuliginosus @ UDCC_TCN (1); NCSU (3)

Cyrtolobus funkhouseri @ NCSU (1)

Cyrtolobus maculifrontis @ UDCC_TCN (3)

Cyrtolobus ovatus @ AMNH_ENT (4); NCSU (5); UDCC_TCN (2)

Cyrtolobus pallidifrontis @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Cyrtolobus rufulus @ AMNH_ENT (1); UDCC_TCN (5)

Cyrtolobus togatus @ AMNH_ENT (29); NCSU (108); UDCC_TCN (84)

Glossonotus acuminatus @ AMNH_ENT (1); UDCC_TCN (3)

Hadrophallus bubalus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Microcentrus perditus @ NCSU (2)

Micrutalis calva @ NCSU (1)

Ophiderma definita @ AMNH_ENT (3); NCSU (128); UDCC_TCN (90)

Ophiderma evelyna @ NCSU (19); AMNH_ENT (1); UDCC_TCN (1)

Ophiderma flavicephala @ NCSU (327); AMNH_ENT (23); UDCC_TCN (318)

Ophiderma pubescens @ UDCC_TCN (1); NCSU (1)

Ophiderma salamandra @ NCSU (9)

Platycotis vittata @ UDCC_TCN (6); AMNH_ENT (6); NCSU (77)

Smilia camelus @ NCSU (7); AMNH_ENT (9); UDCC_TCN (5)

Smilia fasciata @ NCSU (165); UDCC_TCN (67)

Smilia @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Stictocephala brevitylus @ UDCC_TCN (5)

Stictocephala lutea @ UDCC_TCN (1)

Stictocephala stimulea @ NCSU (3); UDCC_TCN (1)

Telamona extrema @ UDCC_TCN (1); NCSU (1)

Telamona monticola @ NCSU (1)

Telamona unicolor @ UDCC_TCN (1)

Xantholobus intermedius @ UDCC_TCN (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Atractotomus miniatus @ NCSU_ENT (8)

Ceratocapsus rubricornis @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocoris quercicola @ NCSU (1)

Neolygus omnivagus @ NCSU_ENT (4)

Neolygus semivittatus @ NCSU_ENT (30)

Phytocoris neglectus @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Plagiognathus guttulosus @ NCSU_ENT (10)

Pseudoxenetus regalis @ NCSU_ENT (18)
Mycoporaceae  Mycoporum acervatum @ I_GBP (2)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora sambuci @ BPI (1)
Pentatomidae  Acrosternum hilare @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Euthyrhynchus floridanus @ NCSU (1)
Physciaceae  Physcia millegrana @ I_GBP (3)

Pyxine subcinerea @ I_GBP (2)
Polyporaceae  Fomes calkinsii @ BPI (1)

Fomes everhartii @ BPI (3)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (1)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (1)

Polyporus biennis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fissilis @ BPI (2)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (5)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus hispidus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus sector @ BPI (1)

Polyporus semipileatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (1)

Trametes hydnoides @ BPI (1)
Septobasidiaceae  Septobasidium alni @ BPI (1)

Septobasidium mariani @ BPI (3)

Septobasidium sinuosum @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex cinnamomeus @ BPI (1)

Irpex mollis @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum fasciatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum frustulatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum lobatum @ BPI (2)

Stereum @ BPI (1)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina caerulescens @ BPI (9)
Ulvaceae  Solenia poriaeformis @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon punctulatum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon rubiginosum @ BPI (1)
_  Actinopelte dryina @ BPI (2)

Endothiella gyrosa @ BPI (3)

Microcera aurantiicola @ BPI (1)

Microcera coccophila @ BPI (1)

Valsaria exasperans @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from US Forest Service
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/quercus/phellos.htm

Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/qphellos.htm

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUPH ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUPH
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUPH ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=QUPH
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=QUPH ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=QUPH
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Quercus phellos L.
willow oak

Image of Quercus phellos

General Information
Symbol: QUPH
Group: Dicot
Family: Fagaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : L48   N
Characteristics
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Quercus thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, DC, Washington. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

Louis C. Maisenhelder. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MS, Sunflower Co. 1950. Usage Requirements .

Louis C. Maisenhelder. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MS, Sunflower Co. 1950. Usage Requirements .

Louis C. Maisenhelder. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MS, Washington Co. 1950. Usage Requirements .

E.S. Shipp. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, NC, Pisgah National Forest. 1939. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, SC. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, NC, Wake Co., JC Raulson Arboretum. October 28, 2011. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, NC, Wake Co., JC Raulson Arboretum. October 28, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 621. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Hamamelididae
Order Fagales
Family Fagaceae – Beech family
Genus Quercus L. – oak
Species Quercus phellos L. – willow oak

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Illinois willow oak Threatened
New York willow oak Endangered
Pennsylvania willow oak Endangered

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACW
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FAC
Great Plains FACW
Midwest FACW
Northcentral & Northeast FACW

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (QUPH)
CalPhotos (QUPH)
Flora of North America (QUPH)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (QUPH)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (QUPH)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (QUPH)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (QUPH)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (QUPH)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (QUPH)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (QUPH)
Related Websites
AL-Alabama State Forestry (QUPH)
AL-Trees of Alabama and the Southeast (QUPH)
AR-University of Arkansas Horticulture (QUPH)
CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (QUPH)
FL-University of Florida (USFS) Fact Sheet (QUPH)
KY-University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service (QUPH)
MD-Maryland Department of Natural Resources (QUPH)
MI-Michigan State University Extension (QUPH)
MI-Ornamental Plants (Michigan State University Extension) (QUPH)
NC-Duke University (QUPH)
NC-Native Plant Fact Sheet (NCSU) (QUPH)
NC-Wetland Plant Identification (QUPH)
NY-Cornell University Horticulture (QUPH)
OK-Oklahoma Biological Survey (QUPH)
SC-Familiar Trees of South Carolina (Clemson University) (QUPH)
TN-Vanderbilt Bioimages (QUPH)
UK-Plants For A Future (QUPH)
USDA FS Silvics Manual (QUPH)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (QUPH)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (QUPH)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Fagaceae | Quercus

14. Quercus phellos Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 994. 1753.

Willow oak

Trees , deciduous, to 30 m. Bark dark gray and smooth, becoming darker and irregularly fissured with age, inner bark light orange. Twigs reddish brown, 1-2 mm diam., glabrous. Terminal buds chestnut brown, ovoid, 2-4 mm, apex acute, glabrous. Leaves: petiole 2-4(-6) mm, glabrous, rarely sparsely hairy. Leaf blade linear to narrowly elliptic, usually widest near middle, 50-120 × 10-25 mm, base acute, margins entire with 1 apical awn, apex acute; surfaces abaxially pale green, glabrous, rarely softly pubescent, adaxially light green, glabrous. Acorns biennial; cup shallowly saucer-shaped, 3-6.5 mm high × 7.5-11 mm wide, covering 1/4-1/3 nut, outer surface puberulent, inner surface light brown, pubescent, scale tips tightly appressed, acute; nut ovoid to hemispheric, 8-12 × 6.5-10 mm, often striate, glabrate, scar diam. 4.5-6 mm.

Flowering spring. Of bottomland flood plains, also on stream banks, dunes, and terraces, and, occasionally, on poorly drained uplands; 0-400 m; Ala., Ark., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va.

Individual trees with leaves softly pubescent abaxially may be classified as Quercus phellos forma intonsa Fernald; however, such leaves are known to occur on second-flush shoots from twigs bearing typical leaves.

Quercus phellos reportedly hybridizes with Q . coccinea (W. W. Ashe 1894); with Q . ilicifolia (= Q . × giffordi Trelease) and Q . incana (E. J. Palmer 1948); and with Q . marilandica , Q . nigra , Q . pagoda (= Q . × ludoviciana Sargent), Q . palustris , Q . rubra , Q . shumardii , and Q . velutina . D. M. Hunt (1989) cited evidence of hybridization also with Q . hemisphaerica , Q . imbricaria , Q . laurifolia , and Q . pumila .

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Quercus+phellos&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Quercus+phellos&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 5
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Quercus phellos%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
Willow Oak
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0404 [detail]
© 2002 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0141 [detail]
© 2002 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
Willow Oak
ID: 2222 0604 0004 0012 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2453 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Quercus phellos
Quercus phellos
Willow Oak
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2454 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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