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Remora remora (Linnaeus, 1758)
BROWN SUCKER
Remora; Common Sucker; Short Sucker-fish; Short Suckerfish; Stout Suckerfish; Stout Sucking Fish; Echeneis remora Linnaeus, 1758; Common Remora

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Echeneidae   Remora

Remora remora
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Remora remora

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Remora remora
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Remora remora
Remora remora
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Remora remora

Remora remora
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Remora remora
Remora remora
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Remora remora

Remora remora
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Remora remora
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Overview
Main identification features
  • sucker reaches tip pectoral, 16-20 plates
  • uniform grey-brown
Dorsal rays 22-26; anal rays 22-24; pectoral rays 23-27; gill rakers on lower limb of first arch (including rudiments) 12-14; distinctive flat head with sucking disc of 16-20 transverse plates; tail fin slightly concave to straight; lower jaw projecting.

Uniformly dark greyish brown.

Size: grows to 86 cm.

Habitat: commonly attached to sharks, sometimes in gill chamber, but also on large fishes, rays, and turtles.

Depth: 0-200 m?.

Circumtropical.; throughout the tropical eastern Pacific except for the upper Gulf of California.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 200 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea; zooplankton; ectoparasites.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=49; Southern limit=-20; Western limit=-125; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=69; Longitudinal range=55.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore; Ectoparasite cleaner; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Large fishes (billfishes, rays, sharks, etc), turtles & whales; Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 86 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1936., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Heterosomata to Pediculati from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(3):1-56.
  • Briggs, J.C., 1960., Fishes of worldwide (circumtropical) distribution., Copeia, 1960:171-180.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Gill, T.N., 1863., Catalogue of the fishes of Lower California, in the Smithsonian Institution, collected by Mr. J. Xantus. Part 4., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 15:80-88.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Hubbs, C.L., 1916., Notes on the Marine Fishes of California., Univ. Calif. Pubs. Zool., 16:153-169.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1928., The marine fishes of Panama. Part III., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:709-1045.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/b36f3f42-e0e2-4d27-af5b-1165cdeb1263 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/b36f3f42-e0e2-4d27-af5b-1165cdeb1263
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

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You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » ACTINOPTERYGII (Class) » EUTELEOSTEI (Subdivision) » ACANTHOPTERYGII (Superorder) » PERCIFORMES (Order) » PERCOIDEI (Suborder) » ECHENEIDAE (Family) » Remora Gill, 1862 (Genus) » Remora remora (Linnaeus, 1758)

Species Remora remora (Linnaeus, 1758)

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CAAB : 37336002 Taxon concept Remora_remora last modified 2012-12-05 16:13:45.011

Species Remora remora (Linnaeus, 1758)

Remora , Brown Sucker, Common Sucker, Short Sucker-fish, Short Suckerfish, Stout Suckerfish, Stout Sucking Fish

 

Generic Combinations

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

All Australian marine waters, uncommon along southern coast; tropical, temperate, circumglobal.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IMCRA

Timor Transition (1), Tasmania Province (10), Southeast Transition (11), Central Eastern Province (12), Tasman Basin Province (13), Lord Howe Province (14), Central Eastern Transition (15), Kenn Transition (16), Kenn Province (17), Northeast Province (18), Northeast Transition (19), Timor Province (2), Cape Province (20), Norfolk Island Province (21), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Christmas Island Province (23), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northwest Province (4), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41), Central Western Transition (5), Central Western Province (6), Southwest Transition (7), Southern Province (8), West Tasmania Transition (9)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Marine, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Attach to large fish.

 

General References

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [116]

Glover, C.J.M. 1994. Families Pomatomidae, Echeneididae. pp. 577-582 figs 512-515 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast . Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. [581]

Gomon, M.F. 2008. Families Rachycentridae and Echeneidae. pp. 571-575 in Gomon, M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast . Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp. [575]

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [473]

Gray, K.N., McDowell, J.R., Collette, B.B. & Graves, J.E. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the remoras and their relatives. Bulletin of Marine Science 84 (2): 183-198 [190]

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [56]

Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. A comprehensive reference for divers and fishermen . Sydney, NSW, Australia : New Holland Publishers xvii, 434 pp. [154]

O'Toole, B. 2002. Phylogeny of the species of the superfamily Echeneoidea (Perciformes: Carangoidei: Echeneidae, Rachycentridae, and Coryphaenidae), with an interpretation of echeneid hitchhiking behaviour. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80 (4): 596-623 [616]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [56] (2125)

 

Common Name References

Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds) 1994. The Fishes of Australia's South Coast . Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. [582] (Brown Sucker, Common Sucker, Stout Suckerfish)

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [473] (Short Sucker-fish)

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [56] ( Remora , Short Suckerfish)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Remora )

Whitley, G.P. 1949. Sucking fishes. Australian Museum Magazine 10 (1): 17-23 [22] (Stout Sucking Fish)

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
05-Dec-2012 05-Dec-2012 MODIFIED
30-Mar-2010 MODIFIED

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Last modified: Wednesday, 5 December 2012 4:13:45 PM AEDT

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Echeneidae  
 Genus Remora  
  Remora remora    (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Echeneis borboniensis Echeneis bourboniensis Echeneis nubifera Echeneis parva Echeneis postica Echeneis remeligo Echeneis remiligo Echeneis remora Echeneis remoroides Echeneis squalipeta   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993)
Character: Body not elongate, its depth contained 5 to 8 times in standard length. Jaws broad, the lower projecting beyond the upper. First dorsal fin replaced by a transversal, laminated, oval cephalic disc with 16 to 20 laminae, posterior end of sucking disc before posterior end of pectoral fin; second dorsal fin and anal fin long, lacking spines, the dorsal fin with 21 to 27 and anal fin with 20 to 25 soft rays; pectoral fins rounded; caudal fin forked in young, becoming emarginate adults. Total gill rakers on first gill arch 28 to 37. Body and fins uniformly blackish-brown. 
Habitat: Usually associated with sharks but also attaches itself to other large fishes, sea turtles and even ships. Sometimes free-swimming. Younger individuals are more active as parasite pickers. Feeds on parasitic copepods. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan in warm waters. It is common in waters around Taiwan. 
Utility: No commercial value. 
Name Code: 381648
  IUCN Red List:LC      
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Remora remora   (Linnaeus, 1758)

Shark sucker Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Pictures | Google image Image of Remora remora (Shark sucker) Remora remora
Picture by Béarez, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Echeneidae (Remoras)
Etymology: Remora: Latin, remora = delay, hindrance (1567) (Ref. 45335 ) ;   remora: remora meaning delay or hindrance; these fish were once thought to delay a ship's progress when they attached to the hull (Ref. 4389 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 86942 ).   Subtropical; 60°N - 36°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in warm waters. Western Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559 ) to New Zealand and Norfolk Island (Ref. 8879 ). Eastern Pacific: San Francisco in California, USA to Chile (Ref. 2850 ). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Argentina (Ref. 7251 ). Eastern Atlantic: North Sea to the Canary Islands, including the western Mediterranean. Recorded from Iceland (Ref. 13583 ) and between Sweden and Denmark (Ref. 28571 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 86.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340 ); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999 ); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 22-26; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 22 - 24. Dark brownish grey in color (Ref. 4389 ). During the course of development, fin is transformed into a suction disc (Ref. 35388 ). Deeper-bodied than Echeneis naucrates (Ref. 37816 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Usually associated with sharks but also attaches itself to other large fishes, sea turtles and even ships (Ref. 2850 , 58302 ); found in gill chambers, fins and body surface (Ref. 5951 ). Sometimes free-swimming (Ref. 2850 ). Younger individual is more active as parasite pickers (Ref. 26938 ). Feeds on parasitic copepods (Ref. 35388 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Lachner, E.A. and A. Post , 1990. Echeneidae. p. 725-728. In J. C. Quéro, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 10791 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | OsteoBase( skull , spine ) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 11.7 - 28.2, mean 24.8 (based on 2107 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5352   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

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