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Sciaenidae
DRUMS OR CROAKERS
Drums; Weakfishes

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Umbrina analis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina analis
Umbrina galapagorum
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina galapagorum

Umbrina xanti
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina xanti
Umbrina xanti
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina xanti

Umbrina bussingi
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina bussingi
Umbrina xanti
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina xanti

Umbrina bussingi
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina bussingi
Umbrina xanti
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina xanti

Umbrina dorsalis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Umbrina dorsalis
Cynoscion
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Cynoscion

Cynoscion albus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Cynoscion albus
Cynoscion praedatorius
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Cynoscion praedatorius

Cynoscion reticulatus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Cynoscion reticulatus
Cynoscion squamipinnis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Cynoscion squamipinnis

Sciaenidae
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Sciaenidae
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • 1 deeply divided, long-based d
  • ll: to end c
  • chin: +/- (pores, knob, barbels)
  • bony plate at top corner operculum
FAMILY SCIAENIDAE

CROAKERS, CORVINAS, CROAKERS, HIGH-HAT, HIGH-HATS, KINGCROAKERS, STARDRUMS, WEAKFISHES

Croakers are usually elongate to oval fishes with a long-based dorsal fin that is deeply notched (or completely separated in a few species) between the spinous and soft portions. Other general features include a a lateral line that extends to the center of the end of the tail fin; a relatively blunt snout in most species; conspicuous pores on the snout and lower jaw; a single barbell or patch of small barbells on the chin of some species; a bony flap immediately above the gill opening; large cavernous sensory canals on the head; unusually large otoliths ("ear" bones), and a swim bladder that frequently has many branches.

These fishes derive their common name from the croaking or drumming sounds that are produced by specialized muscles on the body wall connected to the swim bladder. The bladder serves as a resonating chamber that amplifies the sound.

Sciaenids are generally bottom dwellers that inhabit sandy or muddy areas, frequently off beaches or in sheltered bays, estuaries, and river mouths. Other species occur offshore on the continental shelf (usually in less than 50 m depth) and are an important component of trawl fisheries. The annual landing of sciaenids is very substantial, both from trawlers and from gill net fishermen. Indeed, the various species of corvina are a common element of fish markets throughout the region. They are generally carnivorous, feeding on a variety of small fishes and benthic invertebrates.

Sciaenids are found worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical seas, but a number of species also inhabit fresh waters (particularly in South America). Worldwide there are an estimated 65 genera and about 261 species. This is one of the largest families in the region. Seventy-eight endemic species from 25 genera have been recorded from our area.


References
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  • Walker , H. J. and Radford, K. W., 1992., Eastern Pacific species of the genus Umbrina (Pisces: Sciaenidae) with a description of a new species., Fishery Bulletin, 90:574-587.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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