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Tetraloniella eriocarpi (Cockerell, 1898)
Exomalopsis eriocarpi Cockerell, 1898; Melissodes pimella Cockerell, 1906; Melissodes albocincta Cockerell, 1919; Melissodes agilis var parksi Cockerell, 1935; Xenoglossodes eriocarpi (Cockerell, 1898); Xenoglossodes neotomae Cockerell, 1906; Xenoglossodes parksi (Cockerell, 1935); Xenoglossodes pimella (Cockerell, 1906); Melissodes neotomae (Cockerell, 1906)

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Apidae   Tetraloniella
Subgenus: Tetraloniella

Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, face
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, face

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Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, side
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, side
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, top
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, top

Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, wing
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, female, wing
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 6
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee

Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 6
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 6
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee

Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 6
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 6
Tetraloniella eriocarpi, long-horned bee
Overview
Tetraloniella eriocarpi (Cockerell)

Exomalopsis eriocarpi Cockerell, 1898, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, 2:453. Xenoglossodes eriocarpi, Cockerell and Porter, 1899, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser., 7, 4:407; Cockerell, l903, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, 12:449; l905, Canadian Ent., 37:335; 1906, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, 18:72; 1933, Pan-Pacific Ent., 9:159. Melissodes pimella Cockerell, 1906, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, 17:363. Melissodes neotomae Cockerell, l906, Trans American Ent. Soc., 32:314; 1910, Univ. Colorado Studies, 7:195 (new synonymy). Melissodes albocincta Cockerell, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat Hist., ser. 9, 2:119 (new synonymy). Melissodes pimela: LaBerge, 1956, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bul., 37:1179 (new combination). Melissodes agilis var. parksi Cockerell, 1935, American Mus. Nov. No. 766, p. 5. Xenoglossodes parksi: LaBerge, 1956, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bul., 37:1179 (new combination).

Tetraloniella eriocarpi is a small species from the American Southwest and México. The female can be recognized by the yellow maculae along the apical part of the clypeus and bases of the mandibles and the white or cream-colored clypeus as described below. In addition, the female has metasomal terga 3–6 covered with white to yellow pubescence and hair; apical pale fasciae are not clearly evident. Metasomal tergum 2 has a complete apical pale band separated from the basal pale pubescence by almost simple suberect pale hairs. The female mesoscutum has distinct punctures separated usually by one puncture width posteromedially and the surface shiny. The male of eriocarpi can be recognized by sternum 6 having lateral teeth and the carina leaving the apical end of each tooth proceeds towards the midline forming a distinct concavity facing apically. The flagellum is entirely yellow or orange below.

FEMALE. Measurements and Ratios.- N = 20; length, 7.5–9.0 mm; width, 2.5–3.5 mm; wing length, M = 2.02±0.113 mm; hooks in hamulus, M = 10.00±0.218; flagellar segment 1/2, M = 1.66±0.052.

Integmental Color.- Integument piceous except as follows: clypeus with apical band of yellow varying from one-fourth to threefourths of clypeus, in almost all specimens posterior margin of this yellow band with median pointed extension directed posteriorly (at least 99% of females); mandible with yellow basal macula and reddened in apical half; labrum usually entirely white to cream-colored, occasionally margined by black and rarely mostly dark (only in a few specimens mostly from México); tegulae hyaline, yellow; terga 1–4 with apical areas all or mostly hyaline, colorless to yellow, rarely infuscated along basal margins; sterna mostly red with hyaline apical areas; distitarsi red; wing membranes hyaline, veins red to reddish brown.

Structure.- Clypeus gently curved from side to side; oculoclypeal distance minimal, less than half narrowest width first flagellar segment; punctures moderately coarse, crowded, surface moderately shiny. Supraclypeal area with punctures as in clypeus or slightly larger, surface shiny. Face above antennal fossae with small deep punctures separated by half a puncture width or more, surface shiny. Vertex with flattened lateral area with minute punctures separated mostly by half to one puncture width, surface shiny. Genal area narrow, minutely punctate, shiny. Galea above shiny, unshagreened; maxillary palpal segments 5, ratio about as 1.0:1.0:0.8:0.4:0.5. Flagellar segment 2 slightly shorter than broad and as long as or slightly longer than segment 3, segments 3–9 about as long as broad or longer. Mesoscutum with small deep punctures, posteromedially usually separated by half to one puncture width, more crowded peripherally, surface shiny, unshagreened; scutellum similar. Propodeum with dorsal surface punctate except in narrow median area, punctures often elongate, surface slightly dulled by fine shagreening; posterior surface with large median area impunctate, shiny to dull, finely shagreened. Mesepisternum with large, round, deep punctures separated by half a puncture width or slightly more, surface shiny, unshagreened. Metasomal tergum 1 with punctures in median half separated mostly by half to one puncture width or slightly more, more crowded laterally and along base of apical area, surface shagreened, moderately shiny. Terga 2–4 with basal areas with small crowded punctures (slightly sparser medially on tergum 2), surfaces dull to moderately shiny, finely shagreened; apical areas with dense punctures but less visible because of hyaline nature of integument. Pygidial plate with apex rounded, otherwise V-shaped. Sterna 2–5 densely punctate except in narrow apical areas, surfaces shiny.

Vestiture.- In general vestiture white to ochraceous (a few females from western México bright yellowish or even fox-red dorsally); dorsum of thorax and vertex usually brighter. Metasomal tergum 2 with pale basal pubescent band separated from apical pale band by zone of relatively simple, erect to suberect, short hairs not hiding surface of integument; terga 3–6 completely covered by highly plumose pale pubescence. Sternal hairs red to pale ochraceous. Scopal hairs highly plumose, white to extremely pale ochraceous, inner surfaces tarsi red to orange.

MALE. Measurements and Ratios.- N = 20; length, 7–9 mm; width, 2–3 mm; wing length, M = 2.12±0.109 mm; hooks in hamulus, M = 9.25±0.123; flagellar segment 2/1, M = 9.02±0.305.

Integumental Color.- Integument black except as follows: clypeus, base of mandibles, and labrum entirely yellow; flagella red to reddish brown below, yellow to orange above; tegula hyaline, yellow to orange; wing membranes hyaline, colorless, veins yellow to red; tarsi and often tibiae red to orange; terga with apical areas hyaline, colorless; sterna piceous but apical areas hyaline, yellow to colorless.

Structure.- Head sculptured much as in female; maxillary palpus with 5 segments in ratio of about 1.0:0.8:0.8:0.3:0.6; antennae long, reaching second segment of metasoma, second flagellar segment 6 to 10 times as long as first, segments round in cross-section, last five to six segments moderately crenulate. Mesoscutum with anterior third with punctures minute, separated mostly by one to two puncture widths or more (somewhat more densely punctate in some specimens, especially from western México), surface shiny, unshagreened, thorax elsewhere as in female. Metasomal terga sculptured much as in female, but terga 2–5 with apical areas largely impunctate. Tergum 7 with lateral arm of postgradulus carinate, without tooth. Pygidial plate usually one and one-half to two times as broad basally as at apex, with weak subapical lateral notches. Sternum 6 (Fig. 35) with lateral carina forming strong, blunt lateral teeth, each tooth directed somewhat downward and outward, apical end of tooth forming a carina ending short of midline of sternum distinctly curving from tooth to midline forming a concavity facing apically.

Terminalia as in Figs. 35–39. Note that sternum 7 (Fig. 36) has each apicomedian lobe somewhat bilobed and only a few hairs are present on the innermost of these. Sternum 8 (Fig. 37) is distinctly indented on sides and has sparse but distinct apical hairs The gonocoxite (Figs. 38 and 39) is strongly elbowed with abundant hairs on basal portion.

Vestiture.- White to pale ochraceous, uncommonly yellow to dark ochraceous, brighter on thoracic dorsum and vertex; tergum 1 often with apical pale pubescent band complete or narrowly interrupted medially, less commonly restricted to lateral fourth of tergum; terga 2–5 with complete apical pale bands and basal pale pubescence with intermediate areas covered by highly plumose suberect to appressed pubescence; tergum 2 usually and often tergum 3 with apical and basal bands separated by a zone of relatively simple, suberect, pale hairs; rarely intermediate band of erect hairs present on tergum 4. Sterna 4 and 5 with basal area hairs long, stiff, relatively simple, often absent medially on sternum 5; sternum 6 with little or no vestiture.

Type Material.- The female holotype of Tetraloniella eriocarpi (USNM No. 4343) was collected by C.H.T. Townsend in Fillmore Canyon, Organ Mts., New Mexico (5,400 feet elev.), September 1, 1898 from flowers of Eriocarpum gracile. The holotype female of albocincta (USNM No. 23,218) was collected by C.F. Baker in México. The holotype male of pimella (PANS No. 10,132) was taken in Arizona. The holotype male of parksi (AMNH) was collected in Bexar County, Texas, May 17, 1934 by H.B. Parks. The name albocincta was synonymized with Melissodes opuntiella Cockerell by LaBerge (1956) but upon additional study of the type specimen in 1993, it has become evident that the author made an error at that time.

Distribution.- Tetraloniella eriocarpi is known from California and Baja California east to Texas and south to central México (Fig. 3). It was reported from Fort Hall, Idaho, but this author has not seen the specimen and this record seems out of range and probably a misidentification (Cockerell, 1933, p. 159). It has been collected from April 11 to November 20, but chiefly from July through October. The early season (April–early June) specimens are all from Texas or eastern México. In addition to the type material, a total of 484 females and 543 males were examined from localities listed below.


Identification
Extracted from Wallace E. LaBerge. 2001. Revision of the Bees of the Genus Tetraloniella in the New World (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (November 2001)
Tetraloniella eriocarpi is a small species from the American Southwest and México. The female can be recognized by the yellow maculae along the apical part of the clypeus and bases of the mandibles and the white or cream-colored clypeus as described below. In addition, the female has metasomal terga 3–6 covered with white to yellow pubescence and hair; apical pale fasciae are not clearly evident. Metasomal tergum 2 has a complete apical pale band separated from the basal pale pubescence by almost simple suberect pale hairs. The female mesoscutum has distinct punctures separated usually by one puncture width posteromedially and the surface shiny. The male of eriocarpi can be recognized by sternum 6 having lateral teeth and the carina leaving the apical end of each tooth proceeds towards the midline forming a distinct concavity facing apically. The flagellum is entirely yellow or orange below.
FEMALE. Measurements and Ratios.- N = 20; length, 7.5–9.0 mm; width, 2.5–3.5 mm; wing length, M = 2.02±0.113 mm; hooks in hamulus, M = 10.00±0.218; flagellar segment 1/2, M = 1.66±0.052.
Integmental Color.- Integument piceous except as follows: clypeus with apical band of yellow varying from one-fourth to threefourths of clypeus, in almost all specimens posterior margin of this yellow band with median pointed extension directed posteriorly (at least 99% of females); mandible with yellow basal macula and reddened in apical half; labrum usually entirely white to cream-colored, occasionally margined by black and rarely mostly dark (only in a few specimens mostly from México); tegulae hyaline, yellow; terga 1–4 with apical areas all or mostly hyaline, colorless to yellow, rarely infuscated along basal margins; sterna mostly red with hyaline apical areas; distitarsi red; wing membranes hyaline, veins red to reddish brown.
Structure.- Clypeus gently curved from side to side; oculoclypeal distance minimal, less than half narrowest width first flagellar segment; punctures moderately coarse, crowded, surface moderately shiny. Supraclypeal area with punctures as in clypeus or slightly larger, surface shiny. Face above antennal fossae with small deep punctures separated by half a puncture width or more, surface shiny. Vertex with flattened lateral area with minute punctures separated mostly by half to one puncture width, surface shiny. Genal area narrow, minutely punctate, shiny. Galea above shiny, unshagreened; maxillary palpal segments 5, ratio about as 1.0:1.0:0.8:0.4:0.5. Flagellar segment 2 slightly shorter than broad and as long as or slightly longer than segment 3, segments 3–9 about as long as broad or longer. Mesoscutum with small deep punctures, posteromedially usually separated by half to one puncture width, more crowded peripherally, surface shiny, unshagreened; scutellum similar. Propodeum with dorsal surface punctate except in narrow median area, punctures often elongate, surface slightly dulled by fine shagreening; posterior surface with large median area impunctate, shiny to dull, finely shagreened. Mesepisternum with large, round, deep punctures separated by half a puncture width or slightly more, surface shiny, unshagreened. Metasomal tergum 1 with punctures in median half separated mostly by half to one puncture width or slightly more, more crowded laterally and along base of apical area, surface shagreened, moderately shiny. Terga 2–4 with basal areas with small crowded punctures (slightly sparser medially on tergum 2), surfaces dull to moderately shiny, finely shagreened; apical areas with dense punctures but less visible because of hyaline nature of integument. Pygidial plate with apex rounded, otherwise V-shaped. Sterna 2–5 densely punctate except in narrow apical areas, surfaces shiny.
Vestiture.- In general vestiture white to ochraceous (a few females from western México bright yellowish or even fox-red dorsally); dorsum of thorax and vertex usually brighter. Metasomal tergum 2 with pale basal pubescent band separated from apical pale band by zone of relatively simple, erect to suberect, short hairs not hiding surface of integument; terga 3–6 completely covered by highly plumose pale pubescence. Sternal hairs red to pale ochraceous. Scopal hairs highly plumose, white to extremely pale ochraceous, inner surfaces tarsi red to orange.
MALE. Measurements and Ratios.- N = 20; length, 7–9 mm; width, 2–3 mm; wing length, M = 2.12±0.109 mm; hooks in hamulus, M = 9.25±0.123; flagellar segment 2/1, M = 9.02±0.305.
Integumental Color.- Integument black except as follows: clypeus, base of mandibles, and labrum entirely yellow; flagella red to reddish brown below, yellow to orange above; tegula hyaline, yellow to orange; wing membranes hyaline, colorless, veins yellow to red; tarsi and often tibiae red to orange; terga with apical areas hyaline, colorless; sterna piceous but apical areas hyaline, yellow to colorless.
Structure.- Head sculptured much as in female; maxillary palpus with 5 segments in ratio of about 1.0:0.8:0.8:0.3:0.6; antennae long, reaching second segment of metasoma, second flagellar segment 6 to 10 times as long as first, segments round in cross-section, last five to six segments moderately crenulate. Mesoscutum with anterior third with punctures minute, separated mostly by one to two puncture widths or more (somewhat more densely punctate in some specimens, especially from western México), surface shiny, unshagreened, thorax elsewhere as in female. Metasomal terga sculptured much as in female, but terga 2–5 with apical areas largely impunctate. Tergum 7 with lateral arm of postgradulus carinate, without tooth. Pygidial plate usually one and one-half to two times as broad basally as at apex, with weak subapical lateral notches. Sternum 6 (Fig. 35) with lateral carina forming strong, blunt lateral teeth, each tooth directed somewhat downward and outward, apical end of tooth forming a carina ending short of midline of sternum distinctly curving from tooth to midline forming a concavity facing apically. Terminalia as in Figs. 35–39. Note that sternum 7 (Fig. 36) has each apicomedian lobe somewhat bilobed and only a few hairs are present on the innermost of these. Sternum 8 (Fig. 37) is distinctly indented on sides and has sparse but distinct apical hairs The gonocoxite (Figs. 38 and 39) is strongly elbowed with abundant hairs on basal portion.
Vestiture.- White to pale ochraceous, uncommonly yellow to dark ochraceous, brighter on thoracic dorsum and vertex; tergum 1 often with apical pale pubescent band complete or narrowly interrupted medially, less commonly restricted to lateral fourth of tergum; terga 2–5 with complete apical pale bands and basal pale pubescence with intermediate areas covered by highly plumose suberect to appressed pubescence; tergum 2 usually and often tergum 3 with apical and basal bands separated by a zone of relatively simple, suberect, pale hairs; rarely intermediate band of erect hairs present on tergum 4. Sterna 4 and 5 with basal area hairs long, stiff, relatively simple, often absent medially on sternum 5; sternum 6 with little or no vestiture.
Type Material.- The female holotype of Tetraloniella eriocarpi (USNM No. 4343) was collected by C.H.T. Townsend in Fillmore Canyon, Organ Mts., New Mexico (5,400 feet elev.), September 1, 1898 from flowers of Eriocarpum gracile. The holotype female of albocincta (USNM No. 23,218) was collected by C.F. Baker in México. The holotype male of pimella (PANS No. 10,132) was taken in Arizona. The holotype male of parksi (AMNH) was collected in Bexar County, Texas, May 17, 1934 by H.B. Parks. The name albocincta was synonymized with Melissodes opuntiella Cockerell by LaBerge (1956) but upon additional study of the type specimen in 1993, it has become evident that the author made an error at that time.
Distribution.- Tetraloniella eriocarpi is known from California and Baja California east to Texas and south to central México (Fig. 3). It was reported from Fort Hall, Idaho, but this author has not seen the specimen and this record seems out of range and probably a misidentification (Cockerell, 1933, p. 159). It has been collected from April 11 to November 20, but chiefly from July through October. The early season (April–early June) specimens are all from Texas or eastern México. In addition to the type material, a total of 484 females and 543 males were examined from localities listed below.


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Amaranthaceae  Tidestromia lanuginosa @ BBSL (1)
Asteraceae  Baccharis glutinosa @ AMNH_BEE (12)

Baccharis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Baeria sp @ BBSL (1)

Baileya pleniradiata @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Baileya sp @ BBSL (1)

Barcharis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bidens sp @ BBSL (2)

Erigeron @ I_JSA (1)

Haplopappus gracilis @ BBSL (1)

Helianthus sp @ BBSL (1)

Helianthus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Heterotheca subaxillaris @ AMNH_BEE (15)

Heterotheca @ AMNH_BEE (8); I_JSA (2)

Isocoma @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Machaeranthera tanacetifolia @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Pectis papposa @ BBSL (15)

Pectis sp @ BBSL (2)

Pectis @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Sartwellia sp @ BBSL (1)
Convolvulaceae  Convolvulus arvensis @ BBSL (1)
Fabaceae  Dalea sp @ BBSL (1)
Malvaceae  Sphaeralcea sp @ BBSL (1)
Zygophyllaceae  Kallstroemia grandiflora @ BBSL (1)

Kallstroemia sp @ BBSL (1)

Kallstroemia @ AMNH_BEE (4)
_  Asteraceae sp @ BBSL (1)

Asteraceae @ I_JSA (2)

Withheld @ BBSL__CAVE (39); BBSL (43)

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Updated: 2017-10-22 22:21:31 gmt
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