Reprinted with permission from: Rightmyer, M.G. A Review of the Cleptoparasitic Bee Genus Triepeolus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) |
TRIEPEOLUS LUNATUS (SAY)
(Figs. 110–113, 256)
Epeolus lunatus Say 1825: 85 [male, female; Missouri and Prairie des Chiens] [Type lost].
Epeolus lunatus concolor Robertson 1898: 51 [Lectotype: Illinois Natural History Survey No. 8174; female, Carlinville, Macoupin Co., Illinois; 24 July 1888]; Webb 1980: 108 [lectotype designation (by W. E. LaBerge)].
Triepeolus lunatus; Robertson 1901: 231.
Triepeolus concolor; Robertson 1903: 285.
Triepeolus nautlanus Cockerell 1904: 36 [Holotype: U. S. National Museum of Natural History No. 9705; male, (vicinity of San Rafael, Rio Nautla, Vera Cruz, México)]. new synonymy
Triepeolus lunatus lunatus; Mitchell 1962: 472, Fig. 112 [redescription, illustration of scutellum, axillae].
Description.—Length ca. 9–13 mm (rarely as small as 7.5 mm); ITW 2.0–2.7 mm (rarely as small as 1.6 mm). Integument black, sometimes with the following red: basal half of mandible, labrum, apical clypeus, pronotal lobe, tegula, axillar spine, and/or legs (red especially in southern locales, blacker especially in specimens from Illinois, Kansas, and neighboring states); dorsum of mesosoma and metasoma with bands of pale yellow setae (deeper yellow in some specimens from México), usually with banding becoming progressively paler yellow on more posterior terga. Clypeus with strong or rarely weak midline; with weak larger punctures; often sparsely (females) or densely (males) covered with medially-directed, white setae. Paramedian band clearly separated from other pale setae on mesoscutum (somewhat reduced in Midwestern specimens). Scutellum moderately to strongly bigibbous; axillar spine surpassing or rarely only reaching midpoint of scutellum, apical tip slightly incurved, sometimes with reddish coloration. Mesepisternum lacking erect, simple setae or with relatively short (ca. 0.5 OD or less), suberect, simple setae; females with dense, pale yellow, branched setae below scrobal groove, usually also between pronotal lobe and hypoepimeron, and sometimes on anterior surface of mesepisternum (Southwestern specimens); males with more evenly dispersed, sparse, pale yellow, branched setae; punctation usually fairly dense, separated by up to one or two puncture diameter in some places. T1 discal patch strongly triangular to trapezoidal; T2 with LLB absent (esp. Midwest) or present (esp. Southwest), forming acute or weakly acute angle with ATB. Female: Pseudopygidial area semicircular to subquadrate, with distinct, flat, basal crescent; S2–S4 with apical or apicolateral bands of pale setae; S5 very slightly downcurved. Male: Pygidial plate of moderate size, keyhole shaped, with strong basal transverse ridge; S2–S3 with white apical bands of appressed setae (often slightly surpassing apical margin of S3); S4–S5 with brown apical fringes.
Comments.—Although the type specimen of this species is no longer available for study, the meaning is clear from the original description and well understood by most workers making determinations in the collections that I have examined.
Based on the reduced, triangular T1 discal patch, males of this species might be confused with T. q. atlanticus (separated by the shorter pronotal collar in T. lunatus—only ca. 1 OD in length in T. lunatus, versus the ca. 2 OD length of the pronotal collar in T. q. atlanticus), T. simplex (separated by the apical fringes on both S4 and S5 in T. lunatus, only on S4 in T. simplex), or T. concavus, T. nevadensis, or T. remigatus (separated by the isolated paramedian bands on the mesoscutum in T. lunatus). This species is extremely similar to T. rufithorax; the only notable difference between the two species is the greater amount of red coloration on the thorax in T. rufithorax.
One specimen of T. lunatus from Chiapas, México, was labeled “PCAM 40” by D. Yanega; another from Sonora, México, was labeled “PCAM 3” by T. Griswold.
Distribution.—MÉXICO: Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, San Luis Potosí, Sonora, Veracruz, Zacatecas; USA: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California (Modoc Co.), Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin.
Host Records.—Melissodes (Melissodes) bimaculata (Lepeletier)? (Mitchell 1962, evidence not given; Hurd et al. 1980, evidence not given; John S. Ascher, in lit., 2003, 2006, observation of nests in numerous localities); Melissodes sp. (1 specimen, emerging from host nest, Champaign, Illinois).
Floral Records.—Aplopappus spinulosus [= Machaeranthera pinnatifida (Hook.) Shinners ssp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida], Asclepias syriaca L., A. tuberosa L., Aster pilosus [= Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) Nesom var. pilosum], A. tanacetifolium [= Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (H.B.K.) Nees], Baccharis sp., Bahia absinthifolia var. dealbata (Gray) Gray, Baileya pleniradiata Harvey & Gray ex Gray, Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata (Schultz-Bip.) Ballard ex T.E. Melchert, Boltonia sp., Brauneria pallida [= Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.], Callirhoe sp., Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small, Ceanothus sp., Cirsium sp., Coreopsis major Walt., Chrysopsis camporum [= Heterotheca camporum (Greene) Shinners var. camporum], Cyrilla parvifolia Raf., Eriogonum deflexum Torr., Eupatorium purpureum L., Euphorbia marginata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal, Helenium tenuifolium [= Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum], Helianthus annuus L., Helianthus atrorubens L., H. petiolaris Nutt., H. tuberosus L., Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby, Kallstroemia sp., Koellia flexuosa (= Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad.), Lobelia siphilitica L., Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hook., Medicago sp., Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam., Monarda punctata L., Opuntia sp., Petalostemon occidentalis [= Dalea candida Michx. ex Willd. var. oligophylla (Torr.) Shinners], Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC., Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnh., Rudbeckia hirta L., R. laciniata L., Silphium perfoliatum L., Solidago sp., Spermacoce verticillata L., Sphaeralcea sp., Verbena brasiliensis Vell., V. hastata L., V. stricta Vent., Vernonia baldwinii interior (Small) Faust, Ve. fasciculata Michx., Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw., cantaloupe (= Cucumis melo L.), China aster [= Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees], cotton (= Gossypium sp.), red clover (= Trifolium pratense L.), smartweed (= Polygonum), soybean (= Glycine).
Seasonal Records.—20 March to 7 October.
Specimens examined.—639 female, 313 male (ANN ARBOR, AUSTIN, BERKELEY, BOULDER, DAVIS, GAINESVILLE, ITHACA, LAWRENCE, LOGAN, LOS ANGELES, NEW YORK, RIVERSIDE, SAN FRANCISCO, STARKVILLE, TEMPE, URBANA, WASHINGTON D.C.).