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Trillium sessile L.
TOADSHADE
Sessile Trillium

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Liliaceae   Trillium

Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium

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Trillium sessile, Sessile trillium and Yellow Violet V. pubescens
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Trillium sessile, Sessile trillium and Yellow Violet V. pubescens
Trillium sessile, Yellow-form Sessile Trillium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 6
Trillium sessile, Yellow-form Sessile Trillium

Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view
Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem

Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases

Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view
Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem

Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior

Trillium sessile, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium

Trillium sessile, plant
© George Yatskievych, 2003 · 1
Trillium sessile, plant

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Dermateaceae  Gloeosporium trillii @ BPI (1)
Glomerellaceae  Colletotrichum trillii @ BPI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria trillii @ BPI (15)

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Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Trillium sessile  L. - Wake Robin

Trillium sessile plant

Family - Liliaceae

Stems - Aerial stems to +20cm tall, from short rhizomes, herbaceous, erect, purplish (at least at base), glabrous.

Leaves - Whorled, 3 per plant, sessile, ovate to elliptic, acute to acuminate, glabrous, mottled with silver-green above, to +7cm long, 3.5cm broad, entire.

Trillium sessile leaf

Inflorescence - Single sessile flower terminating the aerial stem.

Flowers - Petals 3, reddish-maroon (rarely green), lanceolate, attenuate, to +2.5cm long, 8mm broad, glabrous, erect. Stamens 6, +/-1.5cm long. Filaments purple, 2-3mm long. Anthers long, yellow-brown. Styles 3, purple. Ovary superior, 3-6-angled, 3-locular. Placentation axile. Sepals 3, green with reddish margins, lanceolate, to +2.2cm long, glabrous, spreading to erect.

Trillium sessile flower Typical red flower.

Greenish flower.

Trillium sessile flower Yellow-green flower.

Stamens.

Flowering - April - June.

Habitat - Bottoms, moist slopes, ravines.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This fine species can be found mainly in the lower 2/3 of Missouri. The plant is fairly common in the habitats mentioned above.
The plants with green flowers are known as form viridiflorum  Beyer and are more rare than the red-flowered form.
The flowers of this species have the slight aroma of dead animal tissue as to attract flies and beetles as pollinators. The plant is edible but should not be picked as most plants in this genus are having a tough time competing with man for living space.

Photographs taken at Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, Boone County, MO., 3-27-04, and at Rock Hill Park, Columbia, MO., 4-18-04.


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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 26 Page 96, 110, 115 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 26 | Liliaceae | Trillium

34. Trillium sessile Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 340. 1753.

Sessile trillium, toad trillium, toadshade

Rhizomes horizontal, brownish, thick, praemorse, fleshy. Scapes 1—3, round in cross section, 0.8—2.5 dm, slender to stout, glabrous. Bracts held well above ground, sessile; blade green to bluish green, strongly to sparsely mottled, mottling becoming obscure with age, oval to suborbicular, 4—10 × 2—8 cm, base broadly attached, apex rounded-acuminate to bluntly parallel sided-acuminate (rounded basally to its broad attachment). Flower erect, odor pungent, spicy; sepals displayed above bracts, spreading, green, variously streaked with maroon, lanceolate-oblanceolate, 9—35 × 4—8 mm, margins entire, apex rounded-acuminate; petals long-lasting, erect, ± connivent, ± concealing stamens and ovary, maroon, brownish maroon, green, or yellowish green, not spirally twisted, oblanceolate to elliptic, occasionally almost orbicular, 1.7—3.5 × 0.7—2 cm, thick-textured, narrowed near basal attachment (but not truly clawed), margins entire, apex gradually rounded-tapered to acute; stamens straight, 10—23 mm; filaments red-purple, 2—5 mm, dilated basally; anthers erect, straight, gray-purple, 9—16 mm, thick, dehiscence introrse; connectives purplish brown, straight, projecting 2—5+ mm beyond anther sacs; ovary greenish white basally, purple distally, ovoid to globose, 6-angled, pyramidally narrowed to stigmas, 4—8.5 mm; stigmas erect, divergent-recurved, distinct, purple, subulate, 1—5 mm, ± fleshy. Fruits baccate, dark greenish purple, odorless, subglobose, 6-angled, angles somewhat winglike, pulpy, not juicy. 2n = 10.

Flowering spring (Mar--early May). Rich woodlands, limestone districts, calcareous soils, floodplains, riverbanks, clayey alluvium, less fertile soils, high, dry limestone woods, persists under light pasturing, in fencerows and brushy areas after lumbering; 100--300 m; Ala., Ark., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., Md., Mich., Mo., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

Trillium sessile is rather uniform throughout its range, with few color forms.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trillium+sessile&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trillium+sessile&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Updated: 2018-02-25 00:14:48 gmt
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