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Trillium sessile L.
TOADSHADE
Sessile Trillium

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Liliaceae   Trillium

Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium

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Trillium sessile, Sessile trillium and Yellow Violet V. pubescens
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Trillium sessile, Sessile trillium and Yellow Violet V. pubescens
Trillium sessile, Yellow-form Sessile Trillium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 6
Trillium sessile, Yellow-form Sessile Trillium

Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, Sessile Trillium
Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view

Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior

Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases
Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, whole plant - in flower - general view

Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, leaf - on upper stem
Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, stem - showing leaf bases

Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium sessile, inflorescence - lateral view of flower

Trillium sessile, plant
© George Yatskievych, 2003 · 1
Trillium sessile, plant

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Dermateaceae  Gloeosporium trillii @ BPI (1)
Glomerellaceae  Colletotrichum trillii @ BPI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria trillii @ BPI (15)

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Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Trillium sessile  L.

Wake Robin

Trillium sessile plant

Family - Liliaceae

Stems - Aerial stems to +20cm tall, from short rhizomes, herbaceous, erect, purplish (at least at base), glabrous.

Leaves - Whorled, 3 per plant, sessile, ovate to elliptic, acute to acuminate, glabrous, mottled with silver-green above, to +7cm long, 3.5cm broad, entire.

Trillium sessile leaf

Inflorescence - Single sessile flower terminating the aerial stem.

Flowers - Petals 3, reddish-maroon (rarely green), lanceolate, attenuate, to +2.5cm long, 8mm broad, glabrous, erect. Stamens 6, +/-1.5cm long. Filaments purple, 2-3mm long. Anthers long, yellow-brown. Styles 3, purple. Ovary superior, 3-6-angled, 3-locular. Placentation axile. Sepals 3, green with reddish margins, lanceolate, to +2.2cm long, glabrous, spreading to erect.

Trillium sessile flower Typical red flower.

Greenish flower.

Trillium sessile flower Yellow-green flower.

Stamens.

Flowering - April - June.

Habitat - Bottoms, moist slopes, ravines.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This fine species can be found mainly in the lower 2/3 of Missouri. The plant is fairly common in the habitats mentioned above.
The plants with green flowers are known as form viridiflorum  Beyer and are more rare than the red-flowered form.
The flowers of this species have the slight aroma of dead animal tissue as to attract flies and beetles as pollinators. The plant is edible but should not be picked as most plants in this genus are having a tough time competing with man for living space.

Photographs taken at Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, Boone County, MO., 3-27-04, and at Rock Hill Park, Columbia, MO., 4-18-04.


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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRSE2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRSE2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRSE2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRSE2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRSE2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRSE2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Trillium sessile L.
toadshade

Image of Trillium sessile

General Information
Symbol: TRSE2
Group: Monocot
Family: Liliaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Trillium thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky . University Press of Kentucky. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, GA, Atlanta. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, GA, Atlanta. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United Kingdom, Scotland, Edinburgh, Royal Botanical Garden. Usage Requirements .

©Lawrence S. Gilliam. United States, NC, Forsyth Co., damp woods. June 10, 2004. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 523. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass Liliidae
Order Liliales
Family Liliaceae – Lily family
Genus Trillium L. – trillium
Species Trillium sessile L. – toadshade

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Michigan toadshade Threatened
New York toad-shade Endangered

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain UPL
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont UPL
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast FACU

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
CalPhotos (TRSE2)
Flora of North America (TRSE2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (TRSE2)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (TRSE2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (TRSE2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (TRSE2)
Native Plants Network (TRSE2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (TRSE2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 26 Page 96, 110, 115 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 26 | Liliaceae | Trillium

34. Trillium sessile Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 340. 1753.

Sessile trillium, toad trillium, toadshade

Rhizomes horizontal, brownish, thick, praemorse, fleshy. Scapes 1—3, round in cross section, 0.8—2.5 dm, slender to stout, glabrous. Bracts held well above ground, sessile; blade green to bluish green, strongly to sparsely mottled, mottling becoming obscure with age, oval to suborbicular, 4—10 × 2—8 cm, base broadly attached, apex rounded-acuminate to bluntly parallel sided-acuminate (rounded basally to its broad attachment). Flower erect, odor pungent, spicy; sepals displayed above bracts, spreading, green, variously streaked with maroon, lanceolate-oblanceolate, 9—35 × 4—8 mm, margins entire, apex rounded-acuminate; petals long-lasting, erect, ± connivent, ± concealing stamens and ovary, maroon, brownish maroon, green, or yellowish green, not spirally twisted, oblanceolate to elliptic, occasionally almost orbicular, 1.7—3.5 × 0.7—2 cm, thick-textured, narrowed near basal attachment (but not truly clawed), margins entire, apex gradually rounded-tapered to acute; stamens straight, 10—23 mm; filaments red-purple, 2—5 mm, dilated basally; anthers erect, straight, gray-purple, 9—16 mm, thick, dehiscence introrse; connectives purplish brown, straight, projecting 2—5+ mm beyond anther sacs; ovary greenish white basally, purple distally, ovoid to globose, 6-angled, pyramidally narrowed to stigmas, 4—8.5 mm; stigmas erect, divergent-recurved, distinct, purple, subulate, 1—5 mm, ± fleshy. Fruits baccate, dark greenish purple, odorless, subglobose, 6-angled, angles somewhat winglike, pulpy, not juicy. 2n = 10.

Flowering spring (Mar--early May). Rich woodlands, limestone districts, calcareous soils, floodplains, riverbanks, clayey alluvium, less fertile soils, high, dry limestone woods, persists under light pasturing, in fencerows and brushy areas after lumbering; 100--300 m; Ala., Ark., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., Md., Mich., Mo., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

Trillium sessile is rather uniform throughout its range, with few color forms.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trillium+sessile&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trillium+sessile&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 8
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Trillium sessile%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Trillium
ID: 8253 3202 3492 0131 [detail]
Dr. Robert T. and Margaret Orr
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Toadshade
ID: 0000 0000 0405 1795 [detail]
© 2005 Lisa Powers

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Toadshade
ID: 0000 0000 0405 1796 [detail]
© 2005 Lisa Powers

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Toadshade
ID: 0000 0000 0405 1797 [detail]
© 2005 Lisa Powers

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Toadshade
ID: 0000 0000 0405 1798 [detail]
© 2005 Lisa Powers

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Toadshade
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5196 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Toadshade
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5197 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Trillium sessile
Trillium sessile
Toadshade
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5198 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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