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Xiphiidae
SWORDFISH
Spearfishes

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Xiphias gladius
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Xiphias gladius
Xiphiidae
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Xiphiidae
Kinds
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • sword flattened
  • ds well separated
  • tail fin base: 1 keel
  • no pelvics
FAMILY XIPHIIDAE

SWORDFISHES

This family contains a single species, the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), which has a circumglobal distribution. The swordfish has a flattened sword, lacks jaw teeth, pelvic fins and scales, and has only one keel on the side of the tail base. Billfishes (Family Istiophoridae) have round swords have teeth, pelvic fins, scales and double keels on the tail base.

The swordfish is mainly a warm water species that migrates to temperate and cold waters for feeding in summer and back to warm waters in autumn for spawning and overwintering. Like its billfish cousins, the swordfish uses its beak to stun prey that consists of a variety of fishes, squids, and cuttlefishes. Major sportfishing areas for trolling are located off the eastern United States, western central America, and off eastern Australia and New Zealand.


References
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  • Briggs, J.C., 1960., Fishes of worldwide (circumtropical) distribution., Copeia, 1960:171-180.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Chow , S. and Takeyama, H., 2000., Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal four genetically separated breeding units of the swordfish., Journal of Fish Biology, 56:1087-1098.
  • Cuvier , G. and Valenciennes, A., 1832., Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome huitième. Livre neuvième. Des Scombéroïdes., Histoire Naturelle Des Poissons, 8:1-509.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Graves , J. E. and McDowell, J. R., 1995., Inter-ocean genetic divergence of istiophorid billfishes., Marine Biology, 122:193-203.
  • Grove , J.S. and Lavenberg, R. J., 1997., The fishes of the Galápagos islands., Stanford University Press:863 pp.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , and Snyder,., 1901., Descriptions of nine new species of fishes contained in museums of Japan., J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, 15:301-311.
  • Joseph , J. , Klawe , W. and Murphy, P., 1988., Tuna and Billfish - fish without a country., Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission:69.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Molina, L., Danulat, E., Oviedo, M., González, J.A., 2004., Guía de especies de interés pesquero en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos., Fundación Charles Darwin / Agencia Espeñola de Cooperación Internacional / Dirección Parque Nacional Galápagos, 115pp.
  • Nakamura,., 1985., Billfishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO species catalogue Vol. 5., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 125.
  • Nelson, J.S., 1984., Fishes of the World (Third edition)., John Wiley and Sons:523pp.
  • Philippi, R. A., 1887., Historia natural.--Sobre los tiburones y algunos otros peces de Chile. [Plus:] Apendice sobre el peje-espada, peje-aguja, peje-perro i vieja negra., An. Univ. Santiago Chile, 71:535-574.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Reeb , C. A. , Arcangeli , L. and Block, B. A., 2000., Structure and migration corridors in Pacific populations of the swordfish Xiphius gladius, as inferred through analyses of mitochondrial DNA., Marine Biology, 136:1123-1131.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Shaw , G. and Nodder, F. P., 1813., The Naturalist's Miscellany, or coloured figures of natural objects; drawn and described from nature. London., Naturalist's Misc., :unnumbered pages.
  • Tanaka, S., 1915., Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan including Riukiu Islands, Bonin Islands, Formosa, Kurile Islands, Korea and southern Sakhalin., Fig. Descr. Fish. Japan, 19:319-342.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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